Vocabulary Lists AP — Latin for Rabbits (2023)

Be able to decline: eadem magna aciēs haec fortis manus illa tota pars

attingo, attingere,attigī, attāctus -to touch against; touch, reach, arrive at, border (ad + tango)

accēdō, accēdere, acccessī, accessum (ad + cēdō - to go) - approach, come near to, arrive at, come to; to be added.

accidō, accidere, accidī, ——- (ad + cadō - to fall) - fall to or upon; befall; happen, fall to the lot of, occur.

animadvertō,animadvertere, animadvertī, animadversum -turn mind to, notice

cogō, cogere, coēgī, coactus - bring together; to compel

conspicio, conspire, conspexī, conspectus -to look at attentively, to get sight of, to descry, perceive

conici, conicere, conieci, coniectus- to hurl, to throw

consuescō, consuescere, consuēvī, consuētus- to be accustomed (to) + infinitive

cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognotus- to learn, come to know (in the perfect = know).

contendō, contendere, contendī, contentus- to struggle, vie, fight

dedo, dedere, dedidi, deditus- to give up, surrender

desum, deesse, defuī- to be lacking; to fail +dative case

expugnō(1) to take by storm, capture

existimō(1) to judge, consider, think

efficiō, efficere, effēcī, effectus- to do, effect(often used impersonally + ut + subjunctive = “it happened that.....”

gerō, gerere, gessī, gestum - to wage, conduct, accomplish; wear

incolō, incolere- to dwell, to inhabit

incito(1) to drive forward, to stir on, incite(recite, incite,

excitō (1) to excite

mūniō(4) to fortify

nanciscor, nanciscī, nactus sum- to find, to obtain

nascor, nascī, natus sum- to be born

patior, patī, passus sum - to suffer, to endure, to allow

pateo, patēre, patuī - to be open, to spread, to be revealed

potior, potiri, potitus sum + ABL or GEN. = to gain possession or control of

probō(1) to approve, to commend, to prove, to approve, to put to the test

praecēdo, praecēdere, praecessī, praecessus- to go before,excel

procēdō, procēdere, processī, processus - to advance, go forward

proficiscor, proficiscī, profectus sum- to set out

subveniō, subvenīre, subvēnī, subventum - to come to the aid of + dative

aciēs, aciēī(f) battle line; battle; edge, line of sight

agmen, agminis(n) marching line, column (novissimum agmen= rear of theline)

auxilium, auxiliī (n) help

castra, castrōrum(n) camp

cohors, cohortis(f) cohort

cornū, cornūs (n) wing (of an army); horn

copiae, copiārum(f) troops, forces

equites, equitum(m. pl.) cavalry

equitātus, equitātūs(m) cavalry

eruptiō, eruptiōnis (f) a breaking out

exercitus, exercitūs(m) army

fossa, fossae(f) ditch

frumentum, frumentī(n) grain, (in plural = crops)

impedimentum,impedimentī(n) impediment, obstacle, (in plural = baggage train)

impetus, impetūs(m) attack(impetuous)

latus, lateris(n) side; flank

legātus, legātī(m) envoy; lieutenant general

legiō, legiōnis(f) legion (3600-6000 milites)

manus,manūs(f) hand; band or group of soldiers

mīles, mīlitis(m) soldier

munitiō, munitiōnis(f) fortification

mūrus, mūrī(m) wall

obsidiō, obsidiōnis(f) siege, blockade

pars, partis (f) part, side;direction

passus, passūs(m) step, pace

pīlum, pīlī(n) javelin, spear

praesidium, praesidiī (n) guard

proelium, proeliī(n) battle

profectiō, profectiōnis(f) departure, setting out

salūs, salūtis (f) safety, salvation

scutum, scutī(n) shield

subsidium, subsidiī(n) help, reinforcement, support

tēlum, tēlī (n) weapon; spear

turris, turris(turrim and turrium) (f) tower

ūsus, ūsūs(m) use (of used as a dative of purpose by Caesar)

vigilia, -ae(f) watch (military)

vallum, vallī(n) rampart; wall(interval)

virtūs, virtūtis(f) courage, valour

ācer, ācris, ācre - fierce, harsh

expeditus, a, um - unimpeded, lightly armed

fortis, forte(adj.) brave, strong

parātus, a, um- prepared

reliquus, a, um - remaining, the rest

tardus, a, um- slow

aliquis, aliquid - someone, something

quīcumque, quaecumque, quodcumque (indef. rel. pron.) - whoever, whatever; whosoever, whatsoever

quisque, quidque (indefinite pron.) - each one, each thing, each

apud (prep. + acc.) near, among, in the presence of

nē...quidem= not even (surrounds the word that it emphasizes)

omnīnō (adv. from omnis, omne)altogether, wholly, entirely, utterly, at all

nuper (adv.) recently

qua(relative) where

quīn = that + subjunctive

ferē(adv.) nearly, almost

praeterea(adv.) besides, moreover

procul (adv.) at a distance, far away

prope(adv.) near

propterea quod- because, on account of the fact that

Phrases or Idioms:

Res est testimoniō- “the matter is for (the purpose of) evidence”

capere consilium- to adopt plan

dē summīs rebus - “concerning the most serious circumstances”

in ipsō negotiō:'in the midst of action'.

ad hunc modum- in this manner

in perpetuum- forever

sē recēpērunt- they retreated

longē latēque- far and wide

eōdem diē- on the same day

subductīs navibus- ships drawn up

magnā manū- with a large group of men

summō locō- in the highest position

milia passuum= a Roman mile

numerō hostium habēre- to consider as an enemy

Be able to decline: haec sola visor quoddam infelix mareor idem fortis vir

Acestes, -ae (m) king of Sicily

Aeolus, -i (m) Aeolus, King of Wind ( from Homer'sOdyssey)

Dardanus, a, um = Trojan, of Dardanus, legendary king of Troy

Latona, -ae (f) Leto, mother of Apollo and Diana

Ilium, Ilii (n) Illium = Trot as in Iliad =story of Iliumor Ilioupersis,destruction of Troy

Iulus, -i (m) son of Aeneas AKA Ascanius, hence the Gens Iulii.

Poeni, -orum (m. pl.) Carthaginians, Phoenicians

Teurcri- orum (m. p.) descendant of Teucer (Who the hell is Teucer?)

Tyrius, a, um - Tyrian or of Tyre, a Phoenician city in the Levant

Hesperia, -ae (f) land in the west

Saturnius, a, um - of Saturn; Saturnia = Juno

accendo, accendere, accendi, accensus - to inflame; enrage

adeo, adire, adiī, aditus - to approach, encounter

amplector, amplectī, amplexus sum - to embrace (amplexus)

ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus - to burn; be eager

arceo, arcere, arcui - keep off, defend, restrain

adsurgo, adsurgere, adsurrexi, adsurrectus- to rise up, to stand up

aspicio, aspicere, aspexi, aspectus- to look at, behold, look upon

desisto, desistere, destiti- to leave off, desist

cieo, ciere, civi, citus- rouse, stir

cano, canere, cecinī, cantus - to sing

cerno, cernere, crevi, cretus - to discern, perceive

doleo, dolere, dolui - to suffer, grieve, resent

eripio, eripere, eripui, ereptus - to snatch away

for, fari, fatus sum - to speak

foveo, fovere, fovi - to cherish, fondle

fundo, fundere, fudi, fusus - to pour

furo, furere - to rage, rave, be frantic

defigo, defigere, defixi, defixus- fix, to fasten

haereo, haereo, haesi, haesum- to cling, to stick, to get stuck; be embarrassed

incedo, incedere, incessi, incessus - to go forth, stride, walk majestically

insto, instare - to press on + dative

mollio (4) to soften

parco, parcere, peperci +dative = to spare, pardon

populo (1) to devastate,

stupeo, stupere, stupui - to stand fixed, to be dazed

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - take, use up, consume (alsoadsumo)

surgo, surgere, surrexi, surrectus - to rise up, to stand up

solvo, solvere, solvi, solutus - to loosen, set free; bring an end to

veho, vehere, vexi, vectus - to convey, carry

veto, vetere, vetui - to forbid, prevent

voluto (1) to roll over and over and over and over and over....

aequor, aequoris (n) sea, level surface of the sea

aes, aeris (n) bronze

anima, -ae (f)soul, spirit, ghost [breath , wind, air]. Transf., [the breath of life, vital principle, soul]; 'animam edere', [to give up the ghost]; poet., [life-blood]; meton., [a living being]; sometimes = animus, [rational soul].

animus, -i (m)[the spiritual or rational principle of life in man]. More specifically: (1) [the seat of feeling ,the heart]; 'animi causa', [for pleasure]; loc. (or genit.) 'animi', [at heart]. (2) [character,disposition]; as a trait of character (esp. in plur.) [courage, spirit, vivacity]; also [pride, arrogance]. (3) [the seat of the will, intention]: 'habeo in animo', [I am resolved]. (4) [the seat of thought, intellect, mind, memory, consciousness].

antrum, -i (n) cave

arx, arcis (f) citadelara, ae (f) altar

arvum, -i (n) field

aura, -ae (f) breeze, air

aurum, -i (n) gold

auris, -is (f) ears

aura, -ae (f) breeze

caterva, -ae (f) crowd

caecus, a, um - blind

clarus, a, um - clear, bright; distinguished, noble

cura, curae (f) care, worry, anxiety (sinecure)

discrimen, discriminis (n) a dividing line; critical moment; crisis; hardship

excidium, excidiī (n) destruction

foedus, foederis (n) treaty, contract(federal)

foris, -is (f) door, gate

harena, -ae (f) sand (arena)

inceptum, -i (n) beginning, undertaking

iuvenis, -is (m) youth

ius, iuris (n) law

mare, maris (n) sea

moles, molis (f) a mass; undertaking, burden

mos, moris (m) custom

metus, -us (m) fear

officium, -ii (n) duty, kindness, favour, service

opus, operis (n) work, labour, task

ops, ops (f) power, influence; resources, wealth

ora, -ae (f) shore

praeda, -ae (f) booty

porta, -ae (f) gate

progenies, progeniei (f) offspring

pelagus, -i (n) sea

pectus, pectoris (n) chest; heart; soul

ramus, -i (m) branch

remus, -i (m) oar

relinquiae, ārum (fem. pl.) the leavings, remnants

sidus, sideris (n) star

sors, sortis (f) lot, chance; fate

turbo, turbinis (m) storm; whirlwind

vis, vis (f) force; in plural = strength

acutus, a, um - sharp

aetherius, a, um- of the upper air, ethereal

ater, atra, atrum - black

avidus, a, um - eager

barbarus, a, um - foreign, strange, uncivilized

crudelis, crudele- cruel, bloody

cunctus, a, um - all

infelix, infelicis - unhappy, ill-fated, barren

laetus, a, um - happy

memor, memoris (adj.) mindful, remembering + genitive

potens, potentis (adj.) powerful, ruling over + genitive

subnixus, a, um + abl. resting on (from nitor, niti)

tutus, a, um - safe

at, ast (adversative conj.)

adhuc (adv.) to his point, till now

coram (adv.) openly, publicly, face to face

equidem - truly, indeed, certainly

pariter (adv.) equally

praeterea (adv.) here after, besides

quippe (adv.) of course, certain (tone?)

seu...seu (sive...sive)- whether...or

Vocabulary Lists AP — Latin for Rabbits (1)

Verb game on: dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductus or patior, patī, passus sum

adipiscor, adipisci, adeptus sum - to obtain, get

adhaereo, adhaerere, adhaesi - to cling to, to stick to

comperio, comperire, comperi, compertus - to find out; to discover

concedo, concedere - to withdraw; to yield, to grant

cōnsistō, cōnsistere, cōnstitī, — [sistō, stand], take a stand or position, keep one’s position, stand, form (when soldiers make a formation); stop, halt, remain, stay; (of ships) lie at anchor; consist in, depend or rest on.

cōnstō, -stāre, -stitī, -stātum [stō, stand], stand firm; depend on; be complete; cost; constat (impersonal) it is agreed, certain, evident, or known.

cōnstituō, -stituere, -stituī, -stitūtum [statuō] set up], set up, erect, construct, appoint, decide, decree, determine, establish, set, settle; (of troops) draw up (in formation); (of ships) anchor, station; raise (a legion).

cōnsuēscō, -suēscere, -suēvī, -suētum [suēscō, become used to], become accustomed or used to; perf. be accustomed; cōnsuētus, perf. part. as adj.: accustomed, usual.

concīdō, conīidere, concīdī, concīsus - to cut down

constipo (1) to crowd together in, to stuff

confido, confidere, confisus sum (semi-deponent) - to trust, to rely on+ dat.

conficiō, conficere, confēcī, confectus - to exhaust; to finish off, to complete

insto, instare, institi - press on, take position

irrumpo, irrumpere, irrupi, irruptus, a, um - burst in

ligo (1) to tie, bind (ligament)

legō, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to choose; to read

moror, morari, moratus sum - to delay, linger

morior, mori, mortuus sum - to die

nascor, nasci, natus sum - to be born(neonatal)

nanciscor, nancisci, nanctus sum - to obtain

nitor, niti, nixus or nisus sum - to rely on (+abl. case); to struggle to + infinitive

noceo, nocere, nocui, nocitus - to harm + dative case [often used impersonally in Caesar:ipsi Titurio nihil nocitum iri= "that no harm will be done to Titurius himself"]

oppugnō (1) to attack

obsideō, obsidēre, obsēdī, obsessus- to besiege, to blockade (obsession)

oportet, oportēre, oportui (impersonal verb) - it is proper, it is fitting + subjective acc. + infinitive or ut + subjunctive - noun clause

patior, patī, passus sum - to suffer, to endure; to allow (passive, patient)

pateō, patēre, patuī - to be open, to lie open(intransitive verb)

paenitet, paenitēre, paenituit (impersonal verb) - it causes one (in genitive) to regret something (in accusative) or may generate indirect statement.

procedo, procedere, processi, processum - to proceed, to advance

prodo, prodere, prodidi, proditus - to bring fourth; betray

progredior, progredi, progessus sum - to advance

subvenio, subvenire, subveni - come up to; aid, relieve

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - to take; to take up; spend

tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatus - raise; destroy

soleo, solere, solitus sum - to be accustomed to + infinitive

versor (1) to be engaged, move about; to live

vereor, vereri, veritus sum -to fear, be afraid

adventus, -ūs (m) arrival (advent)

aedes, aedis (f) building; temple

aetas, aetatis (f) age, time of life

aestās, aestātis (f) summer

auctoritas, auctoritatis (f) influence, clout

beneficium, -ii (n) kindness, favour, benefit

caedes, caedis (f) murder, slaughter, killing (cadere)

casus, -ūs (m) chance; misfortune, disaster

certamen, certaminis (n) contest, conflict

cor, cordis (n) heart(discord, concord)

epistula, -ae (f) letter, missive

facinus, facinoris (n) deed; bad deed; crime

fama, -ae (f) rumour, story, hearsay

fas (n. indeclinable) right or just according to divine law (opposite is nefas).

gratia, -ae (f) influence, favour; thanks

iniuria, -ae (f) wrong, injury, injustice

ius, iuris (n) justice, law, right

līberī, - ōrum (m) children

moles, molis (f) a mass, a weight

morbus, -ī (m) disease, sickness, illness

poena, -ae (f) punishment

nutus, -ūs (m) a nod

numen, numinis (f) divine spirit; divinity

obsidio, obsidionis (f) siege, blockade

ratio, rationis (f)- a reckoning , account, consideration, calculation; 'rationem ducere', [to compute]; [any transaction, affair, business;a reason, motive, ground; a plan, scheme, system; reasonableness, method, order; a theory, doctrine, science; the reasoning faculty].

scutum, -ī (n) shield

turris, -is (f) tower (Italian torre)

vagina, -ae (f) sheath, scabbard

vallum, -ī (n) rampart, wall

acer, acris, acre - sharp; fierce; bitter; eager (acrid)

asper, aspera, asperum - rough, harsh, violent

confertus, a, um - crowded together

creber, crebra, crebrum - crowded, frequent

cupidus, a, um - desirous, eager

immanis, immane enormous, immense

inferus, a, um - below, lower

impeditus, a, um- hindered, impeded

impius, a, um - impious, unholy

incolumis, incolume [uninjured , safe and sound]

quidam, quaedam, quoddam (indefinite adj.) a certain

repentinus, a, um - sudden

turpis, turpe- ugly, shameful, disgusting (turpitude)

uter, utra, utrum - which of two?

vivus, a, um - living, alive

admodum (adv.) completely, just about

aut...aut (conjunctions) either...or

bis (adv.) twice

deinceps (adv.) one after another, successively

intus (adv.) within

intra (prep.+ acc.) within, among

confestim (adv.) immediately

ne...quidem = not even

neve - or not, and not, nor

nōndum (adv.) not yet

pridie (adv.) on the day before, on the previous day.

quidem (postpositive) - infact, indeed

quoque - and also, also

rursus (adv.) again, back

sicut - just as, so as

extra (prep. + acc.) outside, beyond, outside of

Phrases or Idioms:

Res est testimonio- “the matter is for (the purpose of) evidence”

de summis rebus - “concerning the most serious circumstances”

in ipso negotio:'in the midst of action'.

ad hunc modum- in this manner

in perpetuum- forever

se receperunt- they retreated

longe lateque- far and wide

eodem die- on the same day

subductis navibus- ships drawn up

magna manu- with a large group of men

Be able to decline: hoc opus &eadem fides

Expect verb game on the back for repello or pario

item (adv.) likewise, besides, also, further, moreover, too, as well

iterum (adv.) again, a second time

iter, itineris (n) journey, route; march

maximē (superlative adv. ) especially

cunctor (1) to delay, to hesitate

freno, frenare - to bridle, to restrain

prope (prep. + acc. ) near (propinquity)

propter (prep. + acc. ) on account of, because of

parco, parcere, peperci (+ dative) to spare

infandus, a, um - unspeakable

oro, orare - to plead, to beseech, to pray, to beg (oration, orant)

adipiscor, adipisci, adeptus sum - get, obtain, reach

ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus - to burn; to be eager

cado, cadere, cecidi, casus - to fall

cedo, cedere, cessi, cessus - to yield (+ dative) to move, to withdraw

cingo, cingere, cinxi, cinctus - to surround

coepi, coepisse, coeptum - to begin (defective verb)

concito (1) to incite, stir, impel

confiteor, confiteri, confessus sum - to admit, to reveal

confido, confidere, confisus sum - to trust, believe (semi-deponent)

conspicio, conspicere, conspexi, conspectus - to see, to behold

consulo, consulere, consului, consultus - to consult, to consider

compleo, complere, complevi, completus - to fill

debeo, debere, debui, debitus - to owe; ought

despero (1) to give up, to have not hope

disco, discere, didici - to learn, get to know

excito (1) excite, inspire; raise

excedo, excedere, excessi, excessus - to go out

impetro (1) to obtain, accomplish

interpono, interponere, interposui - to introduce

labor, labi, lapsus sum - to slipe, glide

minuo, minuere, minui - to diminish

munio, (4) to fortify

nanciscor, nancisci, nactus sum - to obtain, meet

nascor, nasci, natus sum - to be born

nosco, noscere, novi, notus - to recognize; know, learn

nego (1) to deny, to say ...not

nitor, niti, nisus sum - to lean on; to rely on

paro (1) to prepare (semper paratus)

pareo, parere, parui - to obey + dative

pario, parere, peperi, partus - to produce, bear

pendeo, pendere, pependi, pensus - pay, weigh, to hang

polliceor, polliceri, pollicitus sum - to promise, offer

probo (1) to approve, demonstrate

repello, repellere, repuli, repulsus - drive back, repulse

tollo, tollere, subtuli, sublatus - raise; to destroy

vereor, vereri, veritus sum - to be afraid, fear

ulciscor, ulcisci, ultus sum - to avenge, take vengeance

aditus, -us (m) approach, entrance

auctoritas, auctoritatis (f) influence, clout

casus, -us (m) misfortune, change

centurio, centurionis (m) centurion

circuitus, -us (m) circumference, circuit

contumelia, -ae (f) insult, outrage; violence

fames, famis (f) hunger

fama, -ae (f) story, rumor; reputation

familiaris, -e- of the family; close friend

fides, fidei (f) faith, honor, trust

fletus, -us (m) weeping

hiems, hiemis (f) winter

hiberna, -orum (n. Pl.) winter-camp

inopia, -ae (f) poverty, want, need

ignis, -is (m) fire

meritum, -i (n) service, favour

mos, moris (m) custom, habit, manner (mos maiorum, mores)

negotium, -ii (n) business, a task

officium, -ii (n) duty

opus, operis (n) work, toil; defenses

opera, -ae (f) effort, attention

ops, opis (f) power, resources, influence

praesidium, -ii (n) guard, protection

pietas, pietatis (f) devotion/loyalty to family, state/nations and gods

ratio, rationis (f) an accounting, reasoning

scala, -ae (f) ladder, stairs

sententia, -ae (f) opinion, purpose

sermo, sermonis (m) conversation, speech

studium, -ii (n) eagerness, zeal

stipendium, -i (n) pay; military service

voluntas, voluntatis (f) wish, will, choice

vulgus, -i (n) mass, mob

aeger, aegra, aegrum - sick, weak

alacer, alacris, alacere - eager, spirited

amplus, a, um - ample, full, spacious

confertus, a, um - crowded together

humilis, humile- on the ground; humble, low

incommodus, a, um - unfortunate, disastrous

incolumis,incolume- uninjured, safe

indignus, a, um + ablative= unworthy, undeserving

idoneus, a, um - suitable, appropriate +dative case

levis, leve - light (opposite of gravis, -e)

par, paris - equal, similar + dative

repentinus, a, um - sudden, unexpected

saucius, a, -um - wounded

adeo, (adv.) to such an extent

apud + acc. = in the presence of, with, among

casū (adv.) by chance

confestim (adv.) immediately

eiusmodi - of this kind, of such a kind, so

intra + acc. = within

inter + acc= between, among

procul (adv.) far off, at a distance

quotiens - as often as

quoniam - since

nondum (adv.) not yet

paene (adv.) almost

rursus (adv.) again, backward

sive…sive or seu…seu - whether, or

tametsi - even if, although

unde - whence, from where

vero (postpositive) in fact

Be able to decline: eadem magna aciēs haec fortis manus illa tota pars

attingo, attingere,attigī, attāctus -to touch against; touch, reach, arrive at, border (ad + tango)

accēdō, accēdere, acccessī, accessum (ad + cēdō - to go) - approach, come near to, arrive at, come to; to be added.

accidō, accidere, accidī, ——- (ad + cadō - to fall) - fall to or upon; befall; happen, fall to the lot of, occur.

animadvertō,animadvertere, animadvertī, animadversum -turn mind to, notice

cogō, cogere, coēgī, coactus - bring together; to compel

conspicio, conspire, conspexī, conspectus -to look at attentively, to get sight of, to descry, perceive

conici, conicere, conieci, coniectus- to hurl, to throw

consuescō, consuescere, consuēvī, consuētus- to be accustomed (to) + infinitive

cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognotus- to learn, come to know (in the perfect = know).

contendō, contendere, contendī, contentus- to struggle, vie, fight

dedo, dedere, dedidi, deditus- to give up, surrender

desum, deesse, defuī- to be lacking; to fail +dative case

expugnō(1) to take by storm, capture

existimō(1) to judge, consider, think

efficiō, efficere, effēcī, effectus- to do, effect(often used impersonally + ut + subjunctive = “it happened that.....”

gerō, gerere, gessī, gestum - to wage, conduct, accomplish; wear

incolō, incolere- to dwell, to inhabit

incito(1) to drive forward, incite

excitō (1) to excite

mūniō(4) to fortify

nanciscor, nanciscī, nactus sum- to find, to obtain

nascor, nascī, natus sum- to be born

patior, patī, passus sum - to suffer, to endure, to allow

potior, potiri, potitus sum + ABL or GEN. = to gain possession or control of

probō(1) to approve, to commend, to prove, to approve, to put to the test

praecēdo, praecēdere, praecessī, praecessus- to go before,excel

procēdō, procēdere, processī, processus - to advance, go forward

proficiscor, proficiscī, profectus sum- to set out

subveniō, subvenīre, subvēnī, subventum - to come to the aid of + dative

aciēs, aciēī(f) battle line; battle; edge, line of sight

agmen, agminis(n) marching line, column (novissimum agmen= rear of theline)

auxilium, auxiliī (n) help

castra, castrōrum(n) camp

cohors, cohortis(f) cohort

cornū, cornūs (n) wing (of an army); horn

copiae, copiārum(f) troops, forces

equites, equitum(m. pl.) cavalry

equitātus, equitātūs(m) cavalry

eruptiō, eruptiōnis (f) a breaking out

exercitus, exercitūs(m) army

fossa, fossae(f) ditch

frumentum, frumentī(n) grain, (in plural = crops)

impedimentum,impedimentī(n) impediment, obstacle, (in plural = baggage train)

impetus, impetūs(m) attack(impetuous)

latus, lateris(n) side; flank

legātus, legātī(m) envoy; lieutenant general

legiō, legiōnis(f) legion (3600-6000 milites)

manus,manūs(f) hand; band or group of soldiers

mīles, mīlitis(m) soldier

munitiō, munitiōnis(f) fortification

mūrus, mūrī(m) wall

obsidiō, obsidiōnis(f) siege, blockade

pars, partis (f) part, side;direction

passus, passūs(m) step, pace

pīlum, pīlī(n) javelin, spear

praesidium, praesidiī (n) guard

proelium, proeliī(n) battle

profectiō, profectiōnis(f) departure, setting out

salūs, salūtis (f) safety, salvation

scutum, scutī(n) shield

subsidium, subsidiī(n) help, reinforcement, support

tēlum, tēlī (n) weapon; spear

turris, turris(turrim and turrium) (f) tower

ūsus, ūsūs(m) use (of used as a dative of purpose by Caesar)

vigilia, -ae(f) watch (military)

vallum, vallī(n) rampart; wall(interval)

virtūs, virtūtis(f) courage, valour

ācer, ācris, ācre - fierce, harsh

expeditus, a, um - unimpeded, lightly armed

fortis, forte(adj.) brave, strong

parātus, a, um- prepared

reliquus, a, um - remaining, the rest

tardus, a, um- slow

aliquis, aliquid - someone, something

quīcumque, quaecumque, quodcumque (indef. rel. pron.) - whoever, whatever; whosoever, whatsoever

quisque, quidque (indefinite pron.) - each one, each thing, each

apud (prep. + acc.) near, among, in the presence of

nē...quidem= not even (surrounds the word that it emphasizes)

omnīnō (adv. from omnis, omne)altogether, wholly, entirely, utterly, at all

nuper (adv.) recently

qua(relative) where

quīn = that + subjunctive

ferē(adv.) nearly, almost

praeterea(adv.) besides, moreover

procul (adv.) at a distance, far away

prope(adv.) near

propterea quod- because, on account of the fact that

Phrases or Idioms:

Res est testimoniō- “the matter is for (the purpose of) evidence”

capere consilium- to adopt plan

dē summīs rebus - “concerning the most serious circumstances”

in ipsō negotiō:'in the midst of action'.

ad hunc modum- in this manner

in perpetuum- forever

sē recēpērunt- they retreated

longē latēque- far and wide

eōdem diē- on the same day

subductīs navibus- ships drawn up

magnā manū- with a large group of men

summō locō- in the highest position

milia passuum= a Roman mile

numerō hostium habēre- to consider as an enemy

Acheron, Acherontis (m) River of Hades

Lacus Avernus - Lake near Cumae and entrance to Underworlld

Charon, Charontis (m) Charon, ferryman of souls across the river Styx

Cocytus, -i (m) river in the underworld

Dis, Ditis (m) Pluto, Hades, god of underworld

Hecate - Infernal version of Diana

Proserpina, -ae (f) Peresphone, Kore

Iris, Iridis (f) Iris, messenger of Juno and goddess of the rainbow

abluō, abluere, ablui, ablutus - to wash (ablution)

adnitor, adnitī, adnisus sum - to lean on; to struggle

aestuō (1) boil, seethe, rage (aestus, -ūs = heat, boiling; tide)

arceō, acrēre, arcuī - to keep off, defend(arx, arcis f.)

bacchor (1) to rave, rush wildly (what are Bacchantes/Maenades?)

cadō, cadere, cecidī, casus - to fall

concutiō, concutere, concussī, concussus - to shake, shatter

consuescō, consuescere, consuevī, consuetus - to be accustomed (to)+ infinitive

cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognotus - to learn, come to know (in the perfect = know).

deficiō, deficere, defēcī, defectus - to fail, faint(deficient, defective)

defungor, defungi, defunctus, a, um - to perform, to finish +ablative case (defunct)

desum, deesse, defuī - to be lacking; to fail +dative case

efficiō, efficere, effēcī, effectus - to do, effect (often used impersonally + ut + subjunctive = “it happened that…..” + noun clause

foveō, fovere, fovī - to keep warm, cherish, to caress lovingly

fremō, fremere - roar, grown

iaceō, iacere, iacuī - to lie(adjacent)

iuvō, iuvāre, iuvi, iutus - to please, to help (often used impersonally)

haereo, haerēre, haesī, haesum - to cling (inherent)

haurio, haurire, hausī, haustus - to drain, drink in

glomerō (1) to gather, to collect (conglomerate)

gignō, gignere, genuī, genitus - to birth, give birth to(genitor = pater; Venus Genetrix)

mandō (1) to entrust; to order (mandate)

mānō, mānāre mānāvī, mānātus - to drip, to ooze forth distill, trickle, drop, to flow.

maturō (1) to hasten + complementary infinitive

meditor meditārī, meditātus sum - to ponder; plan; contemplate

misereor, miserērī + genitive case = to pity

miseror, miserārī, miserātus sum - to pity

nasciscor, nasciscī, nactus sum - to find, to obtain

orō (1) to plead, to beg, to beseech, to pray(+ double accusative)

piget, pigere, piguit (impersonal verb + acc. + inf.) it displeases, its causes regret

praetexō, praetexere praetexuī, praetextus - to weave in front; to fringe; conceal (pretext)

properō (1) to hurry, to hasten

potior, potīrī, potītus sum (+ abl. or gen.) to take possession of, to gain control of

queror, querī, questus sum - to complain

recēdo, recēdere, recessī, recussus - to back, retreat (recede, recession)

secō, secare, secui, sectus - to cut, cleave, slice (secant, section, dissect)

solvō, solvere, solvī, solūtus - to free, loosen, set free; to set sail (absolve, solvent, solution)

spargō, spargere, sparsī, sparsus - to scatter, sprinkled

spernō, spernere, sprevi, spretus - scorn, reject

sumō, sumere, sumpsī, sumptus - to take up (assume, consume, sumptuary)

surgō, surgere, surrēxī, surrēctus - to rise (insurrection, surge)

vereor, verērī, veritus sum - to fear, be afraid of

verro, verrere, verri, versus - to sweep (over)

aether, aetheris (m) upper air; heaven

amnis, amnis (m) river

amictus, amictūs (m) cloak, robe

calor, caloris (m) heat, warmth

canitiēs, canitiēī (f) whiteness

casus, -ūs (m) chance, misfortune, disaster

casū (adv.) by change, accidentally

comes, comitis (m/f) companion

consilium, consiliī (n) plan, counsel, advice, strategy

copia, copiae (f) abundance; troops, forces; supplies

culmen, culminis (n) top, summit

crinis, crinis (m) hair

folium, foliī (n) leaf

gemitus, gemitūs (m) roar, groan, lament

harena, harenae (f) sand, beach

halitus, halitūs (m) breath (halitosis)

heros, herois (m) hero, great warrior

lacus, lacūs (m) lake

mentum, mentī (n) chin

mēns, mentis (f) mind; thought, intension

mōs, mōris (m) custom, manner

mors, mortis (f) death

mūnus, mūneris (n) gift; games; duty (munificent)

monitus, -ūs (m) warning, admonition

orgia, -ōrum (n. pl.) secret rites, mysteries

otium, otiī (n) leisure, time of leisure

ōmen, ōminis (n) omen

opera, operae (f) effort, attention, service, hard work

ops, opis (f) power, support ; in plural - resources; wealth, influence

opus, operis (n) work, task; fortification

palus, paludis (f) swamp, marsh

planta, plantae (f) sole of foot; foot

ramus, ramī (m) brach of a tree

remus, remī (m) oar of ship

rota, rotae (f) wheel

ripa, ripae (f) bank (of a river)

rogus, rogī (m)funeral pyre (Cicero wrote Dē Senectūte)

senectūs, senectūtis (f) old age

sinus, sinūs (m) fold, boson, bay, hollow, indentation

sors, sortis (f) lot, chance, lot

spatium, spatiī (n) space, interval of time

sīdus, sīderis (n) star

solum, solī (n) ground, soil

sors, sortis (f) lot, fortune, fate, chance

species, speciei (f) appearance

spons, spontis (f) will, volition

tectum, tectī (n) building, palace; shelter; roof

torus, torī (m) couch, bed

usus, usūs (m) use, need, purpose (usuiis a common dative of purpose)

tumultus, tumultūs (m) tumult, uprising, clamor

vadum, vadī (n) shallow, shoal

angustus, a, um - narrow

amplus, a, um - ample, full, spacious

crudus, a, um - raw, fresh; bloody

expeditus, a, um - fast, unimpeded

exsanguis, exsangue - bloodless, lifeless, pale

examinis, examine - breathless,

extrēmus, a, um - final, last, extreme (in extrēmīs)

impertius, a, um - unskilled + gen. case

incolumis, incolume - unharmed, safe

incultus, a, um - wild, unkempt

iniquus, a, um - unfair, unjust, hostile(in+ aequus, a, um)

inhumatus, a, um - unburied(inhumation)

inops, inopis (adj.) needy, destitute, bereft of

lividus, a, um - blue, dark(livid)

sordidus, a, um - dirty, squalid

trepidus, a, um - agitated, trembling

aliter (adv.) otherwise

non aliter quam - not otherwise than, just as (introduces a simile)

demum (adv.) at length, finally

iuxta + acc. case = next to , close to(juxtaposition)

inde (adv.) thence, thereupon, afterward

unde (adv.) from where, whence

quia (subordinating conj.) - because

saltem (adv.) at least

totiens - so often

totidem - the same number

ūnā (adv.) together, at the same time

vix (adv.) scarcely, hardly, barely


a(d)spiciō, -spicere, -spexī, -spectus - to see, behold, look at

amplector, amplectī, amplexus sum - to embrace (amplexus)

attollō, attollere - to raise up, to lift

avehō, avehere, avexī, avectus (ab + veho) to carry away, convey

careō, carēre, carui +ablative. - to lack, be free from

condō, condere, condidī, conditus - to bury; to found, to establish

dignor, dignari, dignatus sum +abl. - to deem worthy

for, farī, fātus sum - to speak

excutiō, excutere, excussī, excussus - to shake off, to shake out

frangō, frangere, frēgī, fractus - to break

flectō, flectere, flexī, flectus - to bend, change course, to turn

fugleō, fulgēre - to shine, to flash

hauriō, haurīre, hausī, haustus - to drain, to drink in

haereō, haereō, haesī, haesum - to cling, to stick, to get stuck (inherent)

immĭnĕo, immĭnēre (+ dative) to project over or towards a thing, to bend or lean towards; to threaten (imminent)

incēdo, incēdere, incessī, incessus - to go forth, stride, walk majestically

incumbō, incumbere, incubuī +dative- to lean upon, hang over

includō, inculdere, inclusī, inclusus - to enclose, confine

instō, instāre - to stand against; to press on, urge +dative

iuvō, iuvāre, iuvī - to please, to help (often used impersonally)

lambō, lambere - to lick(lambent) Natīnus rānās lambit

lateō, latēre, latuī - to hide, to lurk (latent)

ligō (1) to bind, fasten (ligament)

legō, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to choose(election)

mīror, mīrārī, mīrātus sum - to wonder, to marvel at

monstrō (1) to show (demonstrative)

mōlior, mōlīrī - to heap up, to construct (mōlēs, mōlis f.)

mactō (1) slaughter

occidō, occidere, occidī, occasus (ob + cadere) - to fall, to perish(occidental)

occultō (1) to hide (occult)

orō, orāre (1) to beg, to pledge, implore (+ acc. of person and acc.of thing)

potior, potīrī, potitus sum + genitive or ablative - to gain possession of

pariō, parere, peperī, partus - to give birth, to produce (distinguish from parō and pareō) (postpartum)

sinuō (1) fold, curve, twist (insinuate)(sinus, sinūs m.)

statuō, statuere, statuī, statutus - to establish, to set up

sistō, sistere, stetī, status - to stand, to stop, to stay

sternō, sternere, strāvī, strātus - to lay low; spread; strew; to kill

suscitō (1) to stir, to arouse (note also incite and excite from cito)

superō (1) to surmount, overcome

tegō, tegere, tēxī, tectus - to cover (papyrus saxum tegit).

tangō, tangere, tetigī, tactus - to touch (Nōlī mē tangere, Maria)

tueor, tuērī, tūtus sum - to watch over; protect (tutor, tuition)

ulcisor, ulciscī, ultus sum - to avenge (Temple of Mars Ultor)

volvō, volvere, volvī, volūtus - to move in a curved course; to roll; to unroll; to undergo (volume, volute, revolution)

aether, aetheris (m) upper air; heavens

āla, ālae (f) wing (of an avis)

amnis, amnis (m) river

anguis, anguis (m) snake

artus, artūs (m) limb, joint, body

arx, arcis (f) citadel

caterva, catervae (f) crowd, band

causa, causae (f) cause, reason

casus, casūs (m) misfortune, chance

cura, curae (f) care, anxiety

collum, colli (n) neck (collar)

collis, collis (m) hill

conubium,conubiī (n) marriage

culpa, culpae (f) fault, offense, blame (mea cupla, culpable)

culmen, culminis (n) peak, summit, top; acme(culminate)

custōs, custōdis (m) guard(custodial, custody)

dolus, dolī (m) trick, fraud, deceit

dolor, doloris (m) grief; angry; pain(dolor)

ensis, ensis (m) sword; knife

error, erroris (m) error; trick, deceit; a wandering

faciēs, faciēī (f) face; appearance(facade)

fragor, fragoris (m) a crashing, crashing noise

gemitus, gemitūs (m) groan, wailing

latus, lateris (n) side, flank(lateral)

letum, letī (n) death

lignum, lignī (n) wood

nepōs, nepōtis (m) descendent(nepotism)

pulvis, pulveris (m) dust

pelagus, pelagī (m) sea

quisquis, quidquid (indef. pronoun) whoever, whatever

robur, roburis (m) oak; strength

rota, rotae (f) wheel

sermō, sermōnis (m) speech, conversation

solum, solī (n) ground, soil, earth

sors, sortis (f) lot, chance; fate, destiny

uterus, uterō (m) womb, uterus; belly (in uterō vs. in vitrō)

uterque, utraque, utrumque - each of two; both

vulgus, vulgī (n) common crowd; mob (vulgar, vulgate)

vitta, vittae (f) garland, fillet

conscius, a, um - aware, privy to

defessus, a, um - weary; exhausted

extrēmus, a, um- final, last, furthest(in extrēmis)

incolumis, incolume - safe, unharmed, uninjured

invīsus, a, um - hated; hateful

laevus, a, um - left; foolish; stupid; ill-omened

fetus, a, um - teeming with, pregnant with+ ablative case

foedus, a, um - foul, disgusting, filthy(foedus foedum = a foul treaty)

furtivus, a, um - stolen, secret (furtive)

memor, memoris (+ genitive) mindful of

pernix, pernicis (adj.) nimble, brisk, active, agile, quick, swift, fleet (pernicious)

secundus, a, um - following, favorable, second

tālis, tāle - such (tālia verba = such words; tālī voce = with such a voice)

tenax, tenacis (adj.) holding (tenacity)

tūtus, a, um - safe

umidus, a, um - damp, dewy, wet (humid)

enim (adv.) for, indeed, truly

exemplō (adv.) straight away

denique (adv.) finally, at last

nusquam (adv.) nowhere; never

pariter (adv.) equally, alike

passim (adv.) everywhere, here and there

procul (adv.) at or from a distance

quondam (adv.) once, formerly

totidem - the same number; so many

totiēns - so often

Be able to decline: haec sola visor quoddam infelix mareor idem fortis vir

Acestes, -ae (m) king of Sicily

Aeolus, -i (m) Aeolus, King of Wind ( from Homer'sOdyssey)

Dardanus, a, um = Trojan, of Dardanus, legendary king of Troy

Latona, -ae (f) Leto, mother of Apollo and Diana

Ilium, Ilii (n) Illium = Trot as in Iliad =story of Iliumor Ilioupersis,destruction of Troy

Iulus, -i (m) son of Aeneas AKA Ascanius, hence the Gens Iulii.

Poeni, -orum (m. pl.) Carthaginians, Phoenicians

Teurcri- orum (m. p.) descendant of Teucer (Who the hell is Teucer?)

Tyrius, a, um - Tyrian or of Tyre, a Phoenician city in the Levant

Hesperia, -ae (f) land in the west

Saturnius, a, um - of Saturn; Saturnia = Juno

accendo, accendere, accendi, accensus - to inflame; enrage

adeo, adire, adiī, aditus - to approach, encounter

amplector, amplectī, amplexus sum - to embrace (amplexus)

ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus - to burn; be eager

arceo, arcere, arcui - keep off, defend, restrain

adsurgo, adsurgere, adsurrexi, adsurrectus- to rise up, to stand up

aspicio, aspicere, aspexi, aspectus- to look at, behold, look upon

desisto, desistere, destiti- to leave off, desist

cieo, ciere, civi, citus- rouse, stir

cano, canere, cecinī, cantus - to sing

cerno, cernere, crevi, cretus - to discern, perceive

doleo, dolere, dolui - to suffer, grieve, resent

eripio, eripere, eripui, ereptus - to snatch away

for, fari, fatus sum - to speak

foveo, fovere, fovi - to cherish, fondle

fundo, fundere, fudi, fusus - to pour

furo, furere - to rage, rave, be frantic

defigo, defigere, defixi, defixus- fix, to fasten

haereo, haereo, haesi, haesum- to cling, to stick, to get stuck; be embarrassed

incedo, incedere, incessi, incessus - to go forth, stride, walk majestically

insto, instare - to press on + dative

mollio (4) to soften

parco, parcere, peperci +dative = to spare, pardon

populo (1) to devastate,

stupeo, stupere, stupui - to stand fixed, to be dazed

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - take, use up, consume (alsoadsumo)

surgo, surgere, surrexi, surrectus - to rise up, to stand up

solvo, solvere, solvi, solutus - to loosen, set free; bring an end to

veho, vehere, vexi, vectus - to convey, carry

veto, vetere, vetui - to forbid, prevent

voluto (1) to roll over and over and over and over and over....

aequor, aequoris (n) sea, level surface of the sea

aes, aeris (n) bronze

anima, -ae (f)soul, spirit, ghost [breath , wind, air]. Transf., [the breath of life, vital principle, soul]; 'animam edere', [to give up the ghost]; poet., [life-blood]; meton., [a living being]; sometimes = animus, [rational soul].

animus, -i (m)[the spiritual or rational principle of life in man]. More specifically: (1) [the seat of feeling ,the heart]; 'animi causa', [for pleasure]; loc. (or genit.) 'animi', [at heart]. (2) [character,disposition]; as a trait of character (esp. in plur.) [courage, spirit, vivacity]; also [pride, arrogance]. (3) [the seat of the will, intention]: 'habeo in animo', [I am resolved]. (4) [the seat of thought, intellect, mind, memory, consciousness].

antrum, -i (n) cave

arx, arcis (f) citadelara, ae (f) altar

arvum, -i (n) field

aura, -ae (f) breeze, air

aurum, -i (n) gold

auris, -is (f) ears

aura, -ae (f) breeze

caterva, -ae (f) crowd

caecus, a, um - blind

clarus, a, um - clear, bright; distinguished, noble

cura, curae (f) care, worry, anxiety (sinecure)

discrimen, discriminis (n) a dividing line; critical moment; crisis; hardship

excidium, excidiī (n) destruction

foedus, foederis (n) treaty, contract(federal)

foris, -is (f) door, gate

harena, -ae (f) sand (arena)

inceptum, -i (n) beginning, undertaking

iuvenis, -is (m) youth

ius, iuris (n) law

mare, maris (n) sea

moles, molis (f) a mass; undertaking, burden

mos, moris (m) custom

metus, -us (m) fear

officium, -ii (n) duty, kindness, favour, service

opus, operis (n) work, labour, task

ops, ops (f) power, influence; resources, wealth

ora, -ae (f) shore

praeda, -ae (f) booty

porta, -ae (f) gate

progenies, progeniei (f) offspring

pelagus, -i (n) sea

pectus, pectoris (n) chest; heart; soul

ramus, -i (m) branch

remus, -i (m) oar

relinquiae, ārum (fem. pl.) the leavings, remnants

sidus, sideris (n) star

sors, sortis (f) lot, chance; fate

turbo, turbinis (m) storm; whirlwind

vis, vis (f) force; in plural = strength

acutus, a, um - sharp

aetherius, a, um- of the upper air, ethereal

ater, atra, atrum - black

avidus, a, um - eager

barbarus, a, um - foreign, strange, uncivilized

crudelis, crudele- cruel, bloody

cunctus, a, um - all

infelix, infelicis - unhappy, ill-fated, barren

laetus, a, um - happy

memor, memoris (adj.) mindful, remembering + genitive

potens, potentis (adj.) powerful, ruling over + genitive

subnixus, a, um + abl. resting on (from nitor, niti)

tutus, a, um - safe

at, ast (adversative conj.)

adhuc (adv.) to his point, till now

coram (adv.) openly, publicly, face to face

equidem - truly, indeed, certainly

pariter (adv.) equally

praeterea (adv.) here after, besides

quippe (adv.) of course, certain (tone?)

seu...seu (sive...sive)- whether...or

Vocabulary Lists AP — Latin for Rabbits (2)

a(d)spicio, -spicere, -spexi, -spectus - to see, behold, look at

amplector, amplectī, amplexus sum - to embrace (amplexus)

attollo, attollere - raise up, lift

aveho, avehere, avexi, avectus - to carry away, convey

careo, carere, carui +abl. - to lack, be free from

dignor, dignari, dignatus sum +abl. - to deem worthy

everto, evertere, eversi, eversus - to over turn; destroy

for, farī, fatus sum - to speak

excutio, excutere, excussī, excussus - to shake off

fugleo, fulgere - to shine, flash

haurio, haurire, hausi, haustum - to drain, to drink in

haereo, haereo, haesi, haesum - to cling, to stick, to get stuck; be embarrassed

incedo, incedere, incessi, incessus - to go forth, stride, walk majestically

incumbo, incumbere, incubui +dative- to lean upon, hand over

includo, inculdere, inclusi, inclusus - to enclose, confine

insto, instare - to press on, urge +dative

iuvo, iuvare, iuvi - to please, to help (often used impersonally)

lambo (1) to lick

lateo, latere, latui - to hide, to lurk (latent)

ligo (1) to bind, fasten

lego, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to choose

macto (1) slaughter

occido, occidere, occidi, occasus - to fall, to perish

occulto (1) to hide (occult)

pario, parere, peperi, partus - to give birth, gain, acquire

sinuo (1) fold, curve, twist (insinuate)

statuo, statuere, statui, statutus - establish, set up

sisto, sistere, steti, status - stand, stop, stay

sterno, sternere, stravi, stratus - to lay low; spread; strew

suscito (1) to stir, to arouse

supero (1) to surmount, overcome

tegō, tegere, tēxī, tectus - to cover

tango, tangere, tetigi, tactus (papyrus saxum tangit).

tueor, tueri, tutus sum - to watch over; protect

ulcisor, ulcisci, ultus sum - to avenge (Temple of Mars Ultor)

aether, eris (m) upper air; heavens

ala, -ae (f) wing

amnis, -is (m) river

anguis, -is (m) snake

artus, artūs (m) limb, joint, body

arx, arcis (f) citadel

caterva, -ae (f) crowd, band

collum, -i (n) neck

collis, collis (m) hill

conubium, -ii (n) marriage

culpa, -ae (f) fault, offense, blame

culmen, culminis (n) peak, summit, top; acme

custos, custodis (m) guard

dolus, -i (m) trick, fraud, deciet

dolor, doloris (m) grief; angry; pain

ensis, -is (m) sword; knife

error, erroris (m) error; trick, deceit; a wandering

facies, faciei (m) face; appearance

fictum, -i (n) falsehood

fragor, fragoris (m) a crashing, crashing noise

insania, -ae (f) madness, frenzy

gemitus, -ūs (m) groan, wailing

latus, lateris (n) side, flank

letum, -i (n) death

lignum, -i (n) wood

nepos, nepotis (m) descendent

pulvis, pulveris (m) dust

quisquis, quidquid (indef. pronoun) whoever, whatever

robur, roburis (m) oak; strength

rota, -ae (f) wheel

sermo, sermonis (m) speech, conversation

solum, -i (n) ground, soil, earth

sors, sortis (f) lot, chance; fate, destiny

uterus, -i (m) womb, belly

uterque, utraque, utrumque - each, both

vitta, -ae (f) garland, fillet

conscius, a, um - aware, privy to

defessus, a, um - weary; exhausted

extremus, a, um- final, last, furthest

incolumis, -e - safe, unharmed, uninjured

invisus, a, um - hated; hateful

laevus, a, um - left; stupid; ill-omened

fetus, a, um - teeming with, pregnant with

foedus, a, um - foul, disgusting, filthy

furtivus, a, um - stolen, secret

pernix, pernicis (adj.) swift, active

secundus, a, um - following, favorable

tenax, tenacis (adj.) holding

tutus, a, um - safe

umidus, a, um - damp, dewy, wet

enim (adv.) for, indeed, truly

denique (adv.) finally, at last

nusquam (adv.) nowhere; never

pariter (adv.) equally, alike

passim (adv.) everywhere, here and there

procul (adv.) at or from a distance

totidem - the same number; so many

totiens - so often

CORE VOCABULARY FOR THE AENEID

ā, ab, abs: (away) from, by (abl.) 25
ac, atque: and, also; as, than, 46
accipiō, -ere, -cēpī, -ceptus: receive, accept; learn, hear, conceive , 7
ad: to, toward, at, near, about (acc.) 29
Aenēās, -ae, acc. ān m.: Aeneas 23
Aeolus, -ī m.: Aeolus, 5
aequor, -oris n.: sea, waves; (level) plain, 11
agmen, -inis n.: army, line, troop; course, 5
agō, -ere, ēgī, āctus: lead, drive, do, treat, pass, conduct, 9

aiō, ais, ait; ajunt: say, speak; assert 7
alius, -a, -ud : other, another, else, 7
altus, -a, -um: (on) high, lofty, deep 28
amor, -ōris m.: love, desire, passion 9
Anchīsēs, -ae, acc. ēn m.: Anchises 8
anima, -ae f.: air, breath, life, soul, shade 5
animus, -ī m.: mind, spirit, courage; anger, pride; purpose, thought 19
annus, -ī m.: year, 5
ante: before (acc.); sooner, previously 10
antrum, -ī n.: cave, 5
aperiō, -īre, -uī, -ertus: open, 5
āra, -ae f.: altar, 8
ardeō, -ēre, arsī, arsus: burn, be eager 8
arma, -ōrum n.: arms, equipment, tools, 18
arx, arcis f.: citadel, fort; height, hill 12
āspiciō, -ere, spexī, spectus: to look at, watch, see, behold 9

at, ast: but, yet, however, at least, 10
āter, ātra, ātrum: black, gloomy, 7
atque, ac: and, also; as, than, 46
aura, -ae f.: breeze, air; favor; light. 6
aut: or; aut...aut: either...or, 31
bellum, -ī n.: warfare, combat, fight 11
caelum, -ī n.: sky, heaven; weather 13
capiō, -ere, -cēpī, captus: take, seize, catch 5
caput, -itis n.: head; summit; life, person, 10
causa, -ae f.: reason, cause; for the sake of (+ gen)
celer, -eris, -ere: swift, quick, 6
circum: around, about, at, near acc.12
clāmor, -ōris m.: shout, roar, 5
classis, -is f.: fleet, army, ship, 8
comes, -itis m/f: comrade, companion 5
condo, condere, condidi, conditus - to bury; to found, to establish (AUC = Ab Urbe Condita)

conjūnx, -jugis m/f: husband, wife, 6
cor, cordis n.: the heart, 5
corpus, -oris n.: body, corpse, form 11
corripiō, -ere, -uī, -reptus: snatch (up), 6
credō, -ere, -didī: believe, trust 5
crūdēlis, -e: cruel, bloody, 6
cum: with; when, since, although, 23
cūnctus, -a, -um: all, whole, entire, 5
cūra, -ae f.: care, anciety, grief; love, 7
cursus, -ūs m.: course, running; haste 6

Danaus, -a, -um: Danaan, Greek, 7
: from, concerning, according to 10
dea, -ae f.: goddess, 7
dēmittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missum: drop, sink, 5
dēsero, -ere, -ruī: desert, forsake, abandon, 6
deus, -ī m.: god, 19
dexter, -tra, -trum: right (hand) 9
dīcō, -ere, dīxī, dictus: say, speak, tell; dictū (2) 20
dictum, -ī n.: word, speech ?
Dīdō, -ōnis f.: Dido, 11
diēs, diēī m. (f.): day, time, season, 4
dīvus, -a, -um: divine; god(dess), 12
dō, dare, dedī, datum: give; grant, allow, put, 29
dolor, -ōris m.: pain, grief, 6
domus, -ūs f.: house(hold), home; 8
dōnum, -ī n.: gift, offering, prize, 6
dūcō, -ere, dūxī, ductus: lead, draw (out), protract; produce, think, 8
dulcis, -e: sweet, pleasant, 7
dum: while, as long as, until, provided 5
ē, ex: out of, from, according to (abl.). 8
ego, meī (pl. nōs, nostrum): I, 43
eō, īre, īvī, (īī), itus: go, proceed, come, 10
errō (1): stray, wander, err; linger, 10
et: and, also, even, too, 172
etiam: besides, also, even, 7
eundī, -ō, -um, -ō: going; gerund eō 3
euntis, -ī, -em, -e, -ēs, -ium: Present part. of eō
extrēmus, -a, -um: farthest, outermost, 5
faciō, -ere, fēcī, factum: do, make, 7
fāma, -ae f.: fame, report, reputation, 9
fātum, -ī n.: fate, destiny; oracle ,18
ferō, ferre, tulī, lātus: bear, endure; carry, report, 22

ferrum, -ī n.: iron; sword, weapon, tool, 7
fīnis, -is m. (f.): end, border; territory 5
flamma, -ae f.: flame, fire, torch; love 8
flūctus, -ūs m: wave, tide, flood, sea11
for, fārī, fātus: speak, say, tell, utter, 7
fortis, -e: strong, brave, valiant, 5
fuga, -ae f. : flight, haste, exile, speed 5
fugiō, -ere, fūgī: flee, escape, shun, 5
furō, -ere, -uī: rage, rave, be frantic 7
futūrus, -a, -um: about to be, future, 4
gemitus, -ūs m.: groan, lament, 5
gēns, gentis f.: clan, race, people, 11
genus, -eris n.: birth, origin, lineage; kind, 7
gerō, -ere, gessī, gestus: carry (on), wage, conduct, 5

harēna, -ae f.: sand
heu: alas! ah! ah me!, 7
hīc (adv.): here, there, hereupon, 13
hic, haec, hoc: this, these, 73
hinc: from this place, hence, thence, 7

hūc: to this place, hither, here. 5
iactō (1): to throw (to and fro), 7
iam: now, already, finally, at once, 19
īdem, eadem, idem: same, the same 6
ignis, -is m.: fire; lightning; passion, love, fury, 15

ille, illa, illud: that, those, 41
immānis, -e: immense, huge, monstrous, 6

imperium, (i)ī n.: command, power, 6
imponō, -ere, -posuī, -positus: place on, 5
īmus, -a, -um: lowest (part) of, 5
in
: in, on, among (abl.); into, against (acc.), 56

ingēns, (-entis): enormous, mighty, huge, 13
inter: between, amovng, during (acc.) 8
intereā: meanwhile, meantime, 5
ipse, -a, -um: (him, her, it)self; very 22
īra, -ae f.: anger, rage, passion, 11
is, ea, id: he, she, it; this, that; 5
Ītalia, -ae f.: Italy, 11
iubeō, -ēre, īussī, iussus: command, order, bid, 9

Iūnō, Iūnōnis f.: Juno, 9
Iuppiter, Iovis m.: Jupiter 9
labōs (or), -ōris m.: labor, hardship, task, 7

lacrima, -ae f.: tear, compassion, 5
laetus, -a, -um: happy; fertile; sleek, 5
lateō, -ēre, -uī: lie hidden, 5
latus, -a, -um: wide, 6
latus, -eris n.: side, flank, 5
Libya, -ae f.: Libya, 5
līmen, -inis n.: threshold, doorway, 5
lītus, -oris n.: shore, coast, beach, 15
locus, -ī m. (pl. locī, loca): place, 8
longus, -a, -um: long, distant; far, 10
lūmen, -inis n.: light, lamp; eye; life, 5
lūx, lūcis f.: light, sun, day; life, 5
magnus, -a, -um: great; noble, important, 21

manus, -ūs f.: hand; band, troop, deed 9
mare, -is n.: sea, 5
medius, -a, -um: middle of, middle, 12
metus, -ūs f.: dread, fear, 5
meus, -a, -um: my (own), mine 10
mīror, -ārī, -ātus sum: to wonder, be amazed at, 5 misceō, -ēre, -uī, mīxtum: mix, mingle, 7
miser, -era, -rum: wretched, unfortunate, 6

moenia, -ium n.: walls; city-walls; 7
mōlēs, -is f.: mass, burden, difficulty, structure, 5

mōns, montis m.: mountain, 5
morior, morī, mortuus sum: to die, 5
moveō, movēre, mōvī, mōtus: move, ponder, 8 multus, -a, -um: much, many, 9
mūrus, ī m.: wall, 8
nam, namque: for; indeed, truly, 6
nātus, -ī m.: son, child, young, 8
nāvis, -is f. : ship, boat, vessel, 11
ne (-ne): indicates a yes/no question; whether, or, 9 : lest, that not, no, not, 5
nec: nor, and not;: neither...nor, 30

nōmen, -inis n.: name, fame, renown 5
noster, -ra, -rum: our (own), ours, 10

nūbēs, -is f.: cloud, 6

nūllus, -a, -um: not any, no one, 6
nūmen, -inis n.: divine power, will, power, 7
nunc: now, soon, as it is, 15
Ō: O! oh! ah!, 14
oculus, ī m.: eye, 12
omnis, -e: all, every, whole, 27

ops, opis (f) power, influence, wealth; resources

opus, operis (n) task, labor, work; fortification
ōrō (1): plead, pray for, entreat, 8

ōra, ōrae (f) shore; border
ōs, ōris n.: face, mouth 13

os, ossis (n) bone
parēns, -entis m/f: parent, ancestor, 6
pareō, parēre, paruī - to obey + dative case

pariō, parere, peperī, partus - to give birth to, to produce

parō, parāre, parāvī, parātus - to prepare (semper parātus)

pars, -rtis f.: part, side, direction, 5
pater, -tris m.: father; ancestor, 13
patria, -ae f.: fatherland, country, 8
pectus, -oris n.: breast, heart, soul, 12
per: through, by (means of), over, 45
pēs, pedis m.: foot; sheet-rope, sheet, 6
petō, -ere, -īvi: seek, head for, ask, 14
pietās, -tātis f.: piety, devotion, 6
plūrimus, a, um: most (superl.multus, plūs) 5
poena, -ae f.: punishment, penalty, 5
pōnō, -ere, posuī, positum: put, place (aside), 5
pontus, -ī m.: sea, ocean 9
populus, -ī m.: people, nation, 6
porta, -ae f.: gate, entrance, 6
possum, posse, potuī: be able, can, 5
post: after, behind (+ acc.), next, 5
premō, -ere, -pressī, -pressum: press, crush, overwhelm, 5 prīmus, -a, -um: first; leading, 23
prior, prius: earlier before, 6
puer, -ī m.: boy, child; slave, 6
pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum: beautiful, pretty, 5
puppis, -is f.: deck, stern; ship, 5
quaerō, -ere, quaesīvī, -sītus: seek, ask, 5
qualis, -e: of what sort?, 7
que: and, also, even, 273
quī, quae, quod (quis?quid?): who, which, what, that, 136 rapiō, -ere, rapuī: snatch, grab, 7
referō, -ferre, -tulī, -lātus: carry or bring back, 5
rēgīna, -ae f.: queen, 10
rēgnum, -ī n.: kingdom, royal power, rule, 14
regō, -ere, rēxī, rectum: rule, lead, direct, 13
rēs, reī f.: thing, affair, matter; deed, fact, 8
rīpa, -ae f.: bank, shore, 8
Rōmānus, -a, -um: Roman, 5
ruō, ruere, -ī, ruitus: fall; rush; plow 8
sacer, -cra, -crum: sacred, holy; sacrifice, rite, 5
saevus, -a, -um: savage, fierce, 7
sanguis, -inis m.: blood; race, descendant, 6
saxum, -ī n.: rock, reef, cliff, crag, 11
scopulus, -ī m.: rock, cliff, crag, 6
sē: him-, her-, it-, themselves, 20
sed: but, moreover; however, 15

sēdēs, -is f.: seat; settlement, abode, home, shrine; 7 servō (1): save, perserve, keep, 6
sī: whether, if (only), in case that, 26
sīc: thus, so, in this manner, 17

sīdus, -eris n.: star, constellation, 7

signum -ī, n.: signal, gesture, 5
simul: at the same time, together, 7

socius, (i)ī m.: comrade, ally,, 6
sōlus, -a, -um: alone, only, sole, 5

somnus, -ī m.: sleep, slumber, dream 5

soror, sorōris f.: sister, 5

sors, sortis f.: lot, luck, 5
spēs, -ēī f.: hope, expectation, 6
stō, -āre, stetī, status: stand (fast up); stop, 6
sub: under, close to, beneath, 13
subeō, -īre, -īī, itus: approach, go up to, undergo 6 sum, esse, fuī, futūrus: be, exist, 55
summus, -a, -um: top of, highest, 9
surgō, -ere, -rēxī, -rēctus: raise (a)rise, surge, 5 tacitus, -a, -um: silent, speechless, still, 5
tālis, -e: such, the following, 15
tandem: finally, at length, pray, 5
tangō, tangere, tetigī, tāctus - to touch (tangent, tactile)

tegō, tegere, texī, tectus - to cover (protect)

tantus, -a, -um: so great, so much, 18
tēctum, -ī n.: roof; house, 6
tellūs, -ūris f.: earth, land, country, 6
tēlum, -ī n.: weapon; wound, blow, 6
templum, -ī n.: temple, 5
tendō, -ere, tetendī, tentus: stretch strive; hasten, teneō, -ēre, -uī, -tus: to have, hold, 12
tergum, -ī n.: back, hide, rear, 5
terra, -ae f.: earth, land, ground, 20
Teucrus, a, um: Teucrian, Trojan, 10
tollō, -ere, sustulī, sublātus: raise; destroy, 5

torqueō, -ēre, torsī, tortum: to twist, hurl, 5

tot: so many, 8
tōtus, -a, -um: total, entire, whole, 8
Troia, ae f.: Troy, 13
Trōs, Trōis: Trojan, 5
tū, tuī (pl. vōs, vestrum) : you, 44
tum, tunc: then, at that time; 18
tuus, -a, -um: your(s), your own, 11
Tyrius, a, um: Tyrian, Carthaginian 8
ubi: where, when; as soon as, 10
ūllus, -a, -um: any, any one (unus nauta word)
umbra, -ae f.: shade, shadow, ghost 12
unda, -ae f.: wave, water, sea 14
ūnus, -a, -um: one, alone; together, 10
urbs, urbis f.: city, town, 27
ut(ī): that, so that; how, 11
varius, -a, -um: various, 5
vastus, -a, -um: desolate, enormous, 7
ve, vel: or; vel...vel, either...or, 8
veniō, -īre, vēnī, ventus: come, go, 14
ventus, -ī m.: wind, blast, 11
vertex, -icis m.: top, peak; whirlpool, 5
vester, -ra, -rum: your 5
videō, -ēre, vīdī, vīsus: see, pass. appear, 26
vincō, -ere, vīcī, victus: conquer, 5
vir, -ī m.: man; hero, husband, 22
vīs, vīs f. (pl. vīrēs): force, violence, power; pl. strength vocō (1): call, name, invoke, invite, 8
volvō, -ere, -ī, volūtus: revolve, (un)roll, 6
vōs, vestrum (sg. tū, tuī) : you, 6
vōx, vocis f.: voice, utterance, word, 8
vulnus, vulneris n.: wound, blow, 7
vultus, -ūs m.: expression, face, 6

a(d)spicio, -spicere, -spexi, -spectus - to see, behold, look at

amplector, amplectī, amplexus sum - to embrace (amplexus)

attollo, attollere - raise up, lift

aveho, avehere, avexi, avectus - to carry away, convey

careo, carere, carui +abl. - to lack, be free from

dignor, dignari, dignatus sum +abl. - to deem worthy

everto, evertere, eversi, eversus - to over turn; destroy

for, farī, fatus sum - to speak

excutio, excutere, excussī, excussus - to shake off

fugleo, fulgere - to shine, flash

haurio, haurire, hausi, haustum - to drain, to drink in

haereo, haereo, haesi, haesum - to cling, to stick, to get stuck; be embarrassed

incedo, incedere, incessi, incessus - to go forth, stride, walk majestically

incumbo, incumbere, incubui +dative- to lean upon, hand over

includo, inculdere, inclusi, inclusus - to enclose, confine

insto, instare - to press on, urge +dative

iuvo, iuvare, iuvi - to please, to help (often used impersonally)

lambo (1) to lick

lateo, latere, latui - to hide, to lurk (latent)

ligo (1) to bind, fasten

lego, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to choose

macto (1) slaughter

occido, occidere, occidi, occasus - to fall, to perish

occulto (1) to hide (occult)

pario, parere, peperi, partus - to give birth, gain, acquire

sinuo (1) fold, curve, twist (insinuate)

statuo, statuere, statui, statutus - establish, set up

sisto, sistere, steti, status - stand, stop, stay

sterno, sternere, stravi, stratus - to lay low; spread; strew

suscito (1) to stir, to arouse

supero (1) to surmount, overcome

tegō, tegere, tēxī, tectus - to cover

tango, tangere, tetigi, tactus (papyrus saxum tangit).

tueor, tueri, tutus sum - to watch over; protect

ulcisor, ulcisci, ultus sum - to avenge (Temple of Mars Ultor)

aether, eris (m) upper air; heavens

ala, -ae (f) wing

amnis, -is (m) river

anguis, -is (m) snake

artus, artūs (m) limb, joint, body

arx, arcis (f) citadel

caterva, -ae (f) crowd, band

collum, -i (n) neck

collis, collis (m) hill

conubium, -ii (n) marriage

culpa, -ae (f) fault, offense, blame

culmen, culminis (n) peak, summit, top; acme

custos, custodis (m) guard

dolus, -i (m) trick, fraud, deciet

dolor, doloris (m) grief; angry; pain

ensis, -is (m) sword; knife

error, erroris (m) error; trick, deceit; a wandering

facies, faciei (m) face; appearance

fictum, -i (n) falsehood

fragor, fragoris (m) a crashing, crashing noise

insania, -ae (f) madness, frenzy

gemitus, -ūs (m) groan, wailing

latus, lateris (n) side, flank

letum, -i (n) death

lignum, -i (n) wood

nepos, nepotis (m) descendent

pulvis, pulveris (m) dust

quisquis, quidquid (indef. pronoun) whoever, whatever

robur, roburis (m) oak; strength

rota, -ae (f) wheel

sermo, sermonis (m) speech, conversation

solum, -i (n) ground, soil, earth

sors, sortis (f) lot, chance; fate, destiny

uterus, -i (m) womb, belly

uterque, utraque, utrumque - each, both

vitta, -ae (f) garland, fillet

conscius, a, um - aware, privy to

defessus, a, um - weary; exhausted

extremus, a, um- final, last, furthest

incolumis, -e - safe, unharmed, uninjured

invisus, a, um - hated; hateful

laevus, a, um - left; stupid; ill-omened

fetus, a, um - teeming with, pregnant with

foedus, a, um - foul, disgusting, filthy

furtivus, a, um - stolen, secret

pernix, pernicis (adj.) swift, active

secundus, a, um - following, favorable

tenax, tenacis (adj.) holding

tutus, a, um - safe

umidus, a, um - damp, dewy, wet

enim (adv.) for, indeed, truly

denique (adv.) finally, at last

nusquam (adv.) nowhere; never

pariter (adv.) equally, alike

passim (adv.) everywhere, here and there

procul (adv.) at or from a distance

totidem - the same number; so many

totiens - so often

Be able to decline: haec visor illud mareor litus ipsum

Anchises, -ae (m) acc. =Anchisen - Trojan Prince and father of Aeneas

Argi, -orum (m. pl.) Argos, city in Greece where Juno is worshipped

Argivus, a, um - Argive, Greek

Danaus, a, um - Danaan, Greek

Ganymēdēs, -is (m) Trojan boy and son of Laomedon, king of Troy

Lāvīnius, a, um - Lavinian, of Lavinium

Parcae, -arum (f) Fates

Teucrus, a, um - Teucrian, Trojan (Teucer was a king of Troy)

Troia, -ae (f) city of Troy or Ilium

Tyrius, a, um - Tyrian, of Tyre, a Phoenician city on the coast of the Levant

Saturnius, a, um - of Saturn

Trōs, Trōis (m) Trojan

Words of Special Significance:

moles, molis (f) a mass, weight, burden

pietas, pietatis (f)

pius, a, um

condo, condere, condidi, conditus

volvo, volvere, volui, volutus - to move in a curved course; to roll; to unroll; to undergo

vatēs, vatis (m) bard, prophet, singer; poet

accendo, accendere, accendi, accensus - to inflame; enrage

adeo, adire, adiī, aditus - to approach, encounter

ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus - to burn; be eager

arceo, arcere, arcui - keep off, defend, restrain

cano, canere, cecinī, cantus - to sing

cerno, cernere, crevi, cretus - to discern, perceive

doleo, dolere, dolui - to suffer, grieve, resent

eripio, eripere, eripui, ereptus - to snatch away

for, fari, fatus sum - to speak

foveo, fovere, fovi - to cherish, fondle

fundo, fundere, fudi, fusus - to pour

furo, furere, furui - to rage, rave, be frantic

iacto (1) to toss, buffet

impello, impellere, impulī, impulsus - to strike against, drive, force

incedo, incedere, incessi, incessus - to stride; go forth; walk

labor, labi, lapsus sum - to slipe, to slide

laedo, laedere, laesi, laesus - to hurt, strike, offend

metuo, metuere, metui - to fear

patior, pati, passus sum - to suffer, endure; allow

pateo, patere, patui - to be open, to be revealed

ruo, ruere, rui - fall; rush; sink

sino, sinere, sivi - to permit, allow

tendo, tendere, tetendi, tentus - to stretch

voluto (1) to turn over, roll

volvo, volvere, volui, volutus - to move in a curved course; to roll; to unroll; to undergo

aequor, aequoris (n) sea

altum, -i (n) the deep, the sea

arx, arcis (f) citadel, fort; height

ara, ae (f) altar

arvum, -i (n) field

aura, -ae (f) breeze, air

aurum, -i (n) gold

causa, -ae (f) cause, reason

casus, -ūs (m) misfortune, chance

cura, -ae (f) care, anxiety,

currus, -ūs (m) chariot

donum, -i (n) gift

fatum, -i (n) fate

fors, fortis (f) chance, fortune

fluctus, us (m) wave, tide, flood, sea

furia, -ae (f) rage, madness

genus, generis (n) race; kind, origin,

gens, gentis (f) clan, race, nation

litus, litoris (n) shore

moenia, -ium (n) walls

numen, numinis (n) divine authority, divinity

ora, -ae (f) shore

pontus, -i (m) sea

portus, -us (m) port

porta, -ae (f) gate

progenies, progeniei (f) offspring

pelagus, -i (n) sea

pectus, pectoris (n) chest; heart; soul

relinquiae, ārum (fe. pl.) the leavings, remnants

sidus, sideris (n) star

socius, -i (m) ally, comrade, follower

sanguis, -inis (m) blood

somnus, -i (m) sleep, slumber; dream

turbo, turbinis (m) whirlwind

asper, aspera, asperum - rough, harsh

ater, atra, atrum - dark, black, gloomy

caelestis, -e(adj.) of the sky, heavenly

carus, a, um - dear + dative case

dives, divitis (adj.) rich

fessus, a, um - tired, weary

immanis, -e- huge, monstrous, enormous

insignis, -e- marked, distinguished

invīsus, a, um - hated

infelix, infelicis (adj.) unfortunate, unhappy, accursed

inferus, a, um - low, below, underneath

imus, a, um - the lowest, the deepest

memor, memoris (adj.) mindful + genitive case

saevus, a, um - cruel, savage

vetus, veteris (adj.) old

enim - for, indeed, in truth

insuper (adv.) above, besides

lātē (adv.) widely, far and wide

longe (adv.) far off

necdum (adv.) not yet

olim (adv.) once upon a time, once

praeterea (adv.) besides, hereafter

qua (adv.) where, in anyway

quo (adv.) to where?

quippe - truly, indeed surely

una (adv.) together, at the same time

unde - from which, whenc

Verb game on: vereor, verērī, veritus sum

Be able to decline: hoc līberum mūnus or ista turpis vis

cingō, cingere, cinxī, cinctus - to surround, to grid; to equip

cōgō, cōgere, cōēgī, cōactus - to compel, to bring together

communicō (1) to share, to impart

comprendō, comprehendere, comprehendī, comprehensus - to grasp; to seize (comprehensive, comprehension)

concidō, concidere, concidī - to fall, to collapse

concīdō, concīdere, concīdī, concīsus - to cut down

contendō, contendere, condendī, contentus - to strive, to hasten

dēfīgō, dēfīgere, dēfīxī, dēfīxus - to stick fast

discō, discere, didicī - to learn(discāmus)

ēdūcō, ēdūcere, ēdūxī, ēductus - to lead out, to bring up

expectō, expectāre - to look out for; wait for

haereō, haerēre - to cling (inherent)

hauriō, haurīre, hausī, hausus - to drain, to empty

iactō (1) to toss (frequentive)+ reflexive pron. = to boast

iūdicō, iūdicāre - to judge(ius, iuris n.)

imperō (1) to command + dative of person commanded

iuvō, iuvāre, iuvī - to help (adiutor, adiutoris m. - helper)

legō, legere, lēgī, lectus - to chose, to pick

ligō, ligare - to bind, to tie(ligament)

metuō, metuere - to fear (Metus Gallicus)

mandō (1) to entrust; to order

necō, necāre - to kill

noscō, noscere, nōvī, nōtus - to recognize, to learn, to be familiar with; to know

tangō, tangere, tetigī, tāctus - to touch (tangent, tactile)

opugnō (1) to attack

pareō, parēre, paruī - to obey + dative case

pariō, parere, peperī, partus - to give birth to, to produce

parō, parāre, parāvī, parātus - to prepare (semper parātus)

pellō, pellere, pepulī, pulsus - to drive (repellent, repulsive)

percutiō, percutere, percussī, percussus - to strike hard

praeficiō, praeficere - to put an accusative in charge of a dative

praesum, praeesse, praefuī - to be in charge of + dative

rumpō, rumpere, rupī, ruptus - to burst

servō (1) to save, to keep

serviō, servīre - to serve + dative

tradō, tradere, tradidī, traditus - to hand over; surrender

traho, trahere, traxi, tractus - to drag, to pull (detractor)

transfīgō, transfīgere, transfīxī, transfīxus - to pierce, thrust through

tegō, tegere, texī, tectus - to cover (tectum = building, roof).

vehō, vehere, vēxī, vectus - to carry, to convey; to travel (middle sense)

vereor, verērī, veritus sum - to fear

versor (1) to be engaged; to be turned

volutō (1) to roll, to turn over and over

aequor, aequoris (n) level surface; sea

aditus, aditūs (m) approach, access (ad + eo)

anima, animae (f) breath, spirit, soul

animus, animī (m) mind, heart; spirit, courage

biduum, biduī (n) two day period

caedēs, caedis (f) slaughter, murder

cāsus, cāsūs (f) a falling; chance, misfortune (cāsū = by chance)

certāmen, certāminis (n) contest, conflict

copia, copiae (f) supply, abundance; in plural: troops, forces

consuetūdō, consuetūdinis (f) custom, habit

dolor, doloris (m) suffering, pain

dolus, dolī (m) trick; deception

facinus, facinōris (n) crime, bad deed; deed

fās (indecl.) right, just according to divine law

foedus, foederis (n) treaty; contract

ignis, ignis (m) fire(igneous rock)

inopia, -ae (f) poverty, want

lapis, lapidis (m) stone

liber, librī (m) book

līber, līberōrum (m. pl.) children

mōlēs, mōlis (f) mass; burden

modus, modī (m) manner, form; measure

morbus, morbī (m) disease, illness

mūnus, mūneris (n) service, duty, gift; tax (munificence)

mundus, mundī (m) world, universe (spiritus mundi)

nefās (indecl.) wrong, not just according to divine law

obsidiō, obsidiōnis (f) seige

plērusque, plēraque, plērumque - very many

pons, pontis (m) bridge (Pontifex Maximus)

pontus, pontī (m) sea (Pontus Euxinus = Black Sea)

praesidium, praesidiī (n) a guard, protection (Caesar praesidiō maximō semper utitur)

sinus, sinūs (m) fold, indentation, bay, etc

spatium, spatiī (n) space(both spacial and temporal) spatium temporis

supplicium, -iī (n) punishment

supplex, supplicis (m) suppliant

tectum, tectī (n) roof, building, hall, palace

vāgīna, -ae (f) sheath(where gladius, gladiī m. lives)

unda, undae (f) wave

ambo, ambae ambo - both (ambidextrous)

duo, duae, duo - two

caelestis, caeleste - celestial, heavenly

creber, crebra, crebrum - frequent, thick; crowded

cupidus, a, um - desirous (Mia est cupida mordendārum ursārum)

foedus, a, a, um - foul, disgusting

gratia, gratiae (f) favour, influence; thanks

immanis, immane- immense, enormous

immitis, immite - fierce, cruel (Lydia est immitis)

inimīcus, a, um - rivaling, hostile + dative

insignis, insigne - distinguished, remarkable

indignus, a, um - unworthy of + ABLATIVE CASE (Favale est dignus summā laude)

invisus, a, um- hated, hateful, odious

memor, menoris(adj.) mindful, remembering + genitive case

- unwilling

memor, menoris(adj.) mindful, remembering + genitive case

mollis, molle - soft (mollify)

idōneus, a, um - suited to+ dative

peritus, a, um - skilled in/at + genitive

imperitus, a, um - unskilled, inexperienced

impius, impia, impium - unholy, impious(impius Mars; pius Aeneas)

incommodus, a, um - unfortunate, disastrous

līber, lībera, līberum - free; as substantive = children

reliquus, a, um - the remaining, the rest

superior, superius - higher, earlier(Adamo est superior)

temerārius, a, um - rash, inconsiderate(temerity)

turpis, turpe - ugly, shameful(turpitude)

tumulus, tumulī (m) pile, heap, mound, hill

quisquam, quidquam (indefinite) anyone, anything

quisque, quidque (indefinite) each one, each thing (cuique suum redde - give to each his own)

cōnfestim (adv.) immediately

inde - from there, then

unde - from where, whence

modo (adv.) only, recently, just now

nam - for

necdum - not yet

nē…quidem = not even

praeter (prep. + acc.) beyond, past

quippe - surely, indeed

quoad - until, as far as, as long as

quotannis - every year, yearly

tantum (adv.) only

unde - from where, whence

1) Be able to decline: hocmagnum munus; hoc grave os; quoddam alienum numen

2) Expect verb game on: for, fari, fatus sum - to speak andcolo, colere, colui, cultus

fertur = he, she, it is said

abdo, abdere, abdidi, abditus- to put away, hide, remove, secrete

cano, canere, cecini, cantus- to sing

colo, colere, colui, cultus- to worship; to cultivate

comprehendo, comprehendere, comprehendi- seize, grasp, arrest

condo, condere, condidi, conditus- to found, establish

conor, conari, conatus sum- to try

confido, confidere, confisus sum(semi-transvestite) +dative = to trust

conspicor(1) to catch sight of; perceive

contego, contegere, contexi, contextum- cover over

deficio, deficere, defeci, defectum- to give out, to fail(defective, deficient)

dimico(1) to brandish weapon; contend; to fight

excido, excidere- to fall from, perish

fertur = he, she, it is said

for, fari, fatus sum- to speak (infant, forum, fate)

foveo, fovere-to keep warm; cherish, support

iacto(1) to toss, buffet (rex se iactat = the king boasts)

immolo(1) to sacrifice , immolate

impello, impellere, impuli, impulsus- to drive, force, strike

laedo, laedere, laesi, laesum- to hurt, injure; offend

metuo, metuere, metui- fear, dread

patior, pati, passus sum- to suffer, endure;to allow+ acc. + inf.

rego, regere, rexi, rectum- to rule, lead, direct

servo, servare- to keep, preserve

sino, sinere, sivi, situs- permit, allow

succurro, succurrere- to aid, run to support + dative

versor(1) to be engaged in

volvo, volvere, volvi, volutus- to wind, roll, twist

alter, altera, alterum(-ius paradigm) the other, another, one…the other

altum, -i(n) the deep; the sea

aequor, aequoris(n) a flat level surface;the sea

aes, aeris (n) bronze

arx, arcis (f) citadel

causa, -ae(f) cause, reason; case

casus, -us(m) chance; misfortune, disaster casū = by chance

conspectus, -us(m) look, sight, view

currus, -us(m) chariot

excidium, -ii(n) destruction, overthrow

fama, -ae(f) rumour, story, report

furiae, -arum(f) madness, rage

furtum, -i(n) theft, robbery

gens,gentis(f) race, clan

genus, generis (n) kind, class, race, (genus, sui generis)

iniuria, -ae(f) injury, wrong

litus, litoris(n) shore

moenia, -ium(n. pl.) walls

moles, molis(f) mass, burden, difficulty(mole)

morbus, -i(m) disease, sickness, illness

munus, muneris(n) service, duty; gift

noxia, -ae(f) fault, offence, crime

numen, numinis(n) divine spirit, divine power

opinio, opinionis(f) opinion, thought, belief

opus, operis(n) task, work; fortification; need

ops, opis(f) help, resources, power, wealth

ora, orae(f) shore

os, oris(n) mouth; face

os, ossis(n) bone

pilum, -i(n) spear

progenies, progeniei(f) offspring

quisquam, quaequam, quidquam - anybody, anyone, anything

sanguis, sanguinis(m) blood; family, race

sal, salis(n) salt; sea water; the sea

verutum, -i (n) javalin

vultus, -us(m) face; expression

asper, aspera, asperum - harsh, rough, fierce

caelestis, caeleste - celestial, heavenly

carus, a, um- dear +dative case

confertus, a, um - crowded together, densely packed

dives, divitis(adj.) wealthy, rich

immanis, immane- immense, enormous

immitis, immite - fierce, cruel

insignis, insigne- distinguished, remarkable

indignus, a, um - unworthy of + ABLATIVE CASE

invisus,a, um- hated, hateful, odious

memor, menoris(adj.) mindful, remembering + genitive case

saevus, a, um- cruel

tot(indecl. adj.) so many

quot (indecl. adj.) how many?

turpis, turpe- shameful, ugly, vile

uter, utra, utrum? Which of two (-ius paradigm)

uterque, utraque, utrumque - each of two

vetus, veteris(adj.) old

vivus, a, um- living, alive

admodum(adv.) completely, just about

causā+ preceding genitive = "for the sake of"

clam(adv.) in secret

circum+ acc. = around

dum(subord. conj.) + indicative = while

dum (subord. conj.) + subjunctive = until

enim- for, indeed, in truth

magis(adv.) more, rather

necdum- not yet

nondum- not yet

ob+ acc. - on account of

palam(adv.) openly, publicly

paulatim(adv.) little by little

qua(adv.) where, in any way

quoque(adv.) also

fertur = he, she, it is said

Verb game on: dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductus or patior, patī, passus sum

adipiscor, adipisci, adeptus sum - to obtain, get

adhaereo, adhaerere, adhaesi - to cling to, to stick to

comperio, comperire, comperi, compertus - to find out; to discover

concedo, concedere - to withdraw; to yield, to grant

cōnsistō, cōnsistere, cōnstitī, — [sistō, stand], take a stand or position, keep one’s position, stand, form (when soldiers make a formation); stop, halt, remain, stay; (of ships) lie at anchor; consist in, depend or rest on.

cōnstō, -stāre, -stitī, -stātum [stō, stand], stand firm; depend on; be complete; cost; constat (impersonal) it is agreed, certain, evident, or known.

cōnstituō, -stituere, -stituī, -stitūtum [statuō] set up], set up, erect, construct, appoint, decide, decree, determine, establish, set, settle; (of troops) draw up (in formation); (of ships) anchor, station; raise (a legion).

cōnsuēscō, -suēscere, -suēvī, -suētum [suēscō, become used to], become accustomed or used to; perf. be accustomed; cōnsuētus, perf. part. as adj.: accustomed, usual.

concīdō, conīidere, concīdī, concīsus - to cut down

constipo (1) to crowd together in, to stuff

confido, confidere, confisus sum (semi-deponent) - to trust, to rely on+ dat.

conficiō, conficere, confēcī, confectus - to exhaust; to finish off, to complete

insto, instare, institi - press on, take position

irrumpo, irrumpere, irrupi, irruptus, a, um - burst in

ligo (1) to tie, bind (ligament)

legō, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to choose; to read

moror, morari, moratus sum - to delay, linger

morior, mori, mortuus sum - to die

nascor, nasci, natus sum - to be born

nitor, niti, nixus or nisus sum - to rely on (+abl. case); to struggle to + infinitive

noceo, nocere, nocui, nocitus - to harm + dative case [often used impersonally in Caesar:ipsi Titurio nihil nocitum iri= "that no harm will be done to Titurius himself"]

oppugnō (1) to attack

obsideō, obsidēre, obsēdī, obsessus- to besiege, to blockade (obsession)

oportet, oportēre, oportui (impersonal verb) - it is proper, it is fitting + subjective acc. + infinitive

patior, patī, passus sum - to suffer, to endure; to allow (passive, patient)

pateō, patēre, patuī - to be open, to lie open(intransitive verb)

paenitet, paenitēre, paenituit (impersonal verb) - it causes one (in genitive) to regret something (in accusative) or may generate indirect statement.

procedo, procedere, processi, processum - to proceed, to advance

prodo, prodere, prodidi, proditus - to bring fourth; betray

progredior, progredi, progessus sum - to advance

subvenio, subvenire, subveni - come up to; aid, relieve

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - to take; to take up; spend

tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatus - raise; destroy

soleo, solere, solitus sum - to be accustomed to + infinitive

versor (1) to be engaged, move about; to live

vereor, vereri, veritus sum -to fear, be afraid

adventus, -ūs (m) arrival (advent)

aedes, aedis (f) building; temple

aetas, aetatis (f) age, time of life

auctoritas, auctoritatis (f) influence, clout

beneficium, -ii (n) kindness, favour, benefit

caedes, caedis (f) murder, slaughter, killing

casus, -ūs (m) chance; misfortune, disaster

certamen, certaminis (n) contest, conflict

cor, cordis (n) heart

epistula, -ae (f) letter, missive

facinus, facinoris (n) deed; bad deed; crime

fama, -ae (f) rumour, story, hearsay

fas (n. indeclinable) right or just according to divine law (opposite is nefas).

gratia, -ae (f) influence, favour; thanks

iniuria, -ae (f) wrong, injury, injustice

ius, iuris (n) justice, law, right

līberī, - ōrum (m) children

moles, molis (f) a mass, a weight

morbus, -ī (m) disease, sickness, illness

poena, -ae (f) punishment

nutus, -ūs (m) a nod

numen, numinis (f) divine spirit; divinity

obsidio, obsidionis (f) siege, blockade

ratio, rationis (f)- a reckoning , account, consideration, calculation; 'rationem ducere', [to compute]; [any transaction, affair, business;a reason, motive, ground; a plan, scheme, system; reasonableness, method, order; a theory, doctrine, science; the reasoning faculty].

scutum, -ī (n) shield

turris, -is (f) tower (Italian torre)

vagina, -ae (f) sheath, scabbard

vallum, -ī (n) rampart, wall

acer, acris, acre - sharp; fierce; bitter; eager (acrid)

asper, aspera, asperum - rough, harsh, violent

confertus, a, um - crowded together

creber, crebra, crebrum - crowded, frequent

cupidus, a, um - desirous, eager

immanis, immane enormous, immense

inferus, a, um - below, lower

impeditus, a, um- hindered, impeded

impius, a, um - impious, unholy

incolumis, incolume [uninjured , safe and sound]

quidam, quaedam, quoddam (indefinite adj.) a certain

repentinus, a, um - sudden

turpis, turpe- ugly, shameful, disgusting (turpitude)

uter, utra, utrum - which of two?

vivus, a, um - living, alive

admodum (adv.) completely, just about

aut...aut (conjunctions) either...or

bis (adv.) twice

deinceps (adv.) one after another, successively

intus (adv.) within

intra (prep.+ acc.) within, among

confestim (adv.) immediately

ne...quidem = not even

neve - or not, and not, nor

nōndum (adv.) not yet

pridie (adv.) on the day before, on the previous day.

quidem (postpositive) - infact, indeed

quoque - and also, also

rursus (adv.) again, back

sicut - just as, so as

extra (prep. + acc.) outside, beyond, outside of

Phrases or Idioms:

Res est testimonio- “the matter is for (the purpose of) evidence”

de summis rebus - “concerning the most serious circumstances”

in ipso negotio:'in the midst of action'.

ad hunc modum- in this manner

in perpetuum- forever

se receperunt- they retreated

longe lateque- far and wide

eodem die- on the same day

subductis navibus- ships drawn up

magna manu- with a large group of men

Vocabulary Lists AP — Latin for Rabbits (3)

summo loco- in the highest position

Be able to decline: hoc opus &eadem fides

Expect verb game on the back for repello or pario

adipiscor, adipisci, adeptus sum - get, obtain, reach

ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus - to burn; to be eager

cado, cadere, cecidi, casus - to fall

cedo, cedere, cessi, cessus - to move, to withdraw

cingo, cingere, cinxi, cinctus - to surround

coepi, coepisse, coeptum - to begin (defective verb)

concito (1) to incite, stir, impel

confiteor, confiteri, confessus sum - to admit, to reveal

confido, confidere, confisus sum - to trust, believe (semi-deponent)

conspicio, conspicere, conspexi, conspectus - to see, to behold

consulo, consulere, consului, consultus - to consult, to consider

compleo, complere, complevi, completus - to fill

debeo, debere, debui, debitus - to owe; ought

despero (1) to give up, to have not hope

disco, discere, didici - to learn, get to know

excito (1) excite, inspire; raise

excedo, excedere, excessi, excessus - to go out

impetro (1) to obtain, accomplish

interpono, interponere, interposui - to introduce

labor, labi, lapsus sum - to slipe, glide

minuo, minuere, minui - to diminish

munio, (4) to fortify

nanciscor, nancisci, nactus sum - to obtain, meet

nascor, nasci, natus sum - to be born

nosco, noscere, novi, notus - to recognize; know, learn

nego (1) to deny, to say ...not

nitor, niti, nisus sum - to lean on; to rely on

paro (1) to prepare (semper paratus)

pareo, parere, parui - to obey + dative

pario, parere, peperi, partus - to produce, bear

pendeo, pendere, pependi, pensus - pay, weigh, to hang

polliceor, polliceri, pollicitus sum - to promise, offer

probo (1) to approve, demonstrate

repello, repellere, repuli, repulsus - drive back, repulse

tollo, tollere, subtuli, sublatus - raise; destroy

vereor, vereri, veritus sum - to be afraid, fear

ulciscor, ulcisci, ultus sum - to avenge, take vengeance

aditus, -us (m) approach, entrance

auctoritas, auctoritatis (f) influence, clout

casus, -us (m) misfortune, change

centurio, centurionis (m) centurion

circuitus, -us (m) circumference, circuit

contumelia, -ae (f) insult, outrage; violence

fames, famis (f) hunger

fama, -ae (f) story, rumor; reputation

familiaris, -e- of the family; close friend

fides, fidei (f) faith, honor, trust

fletus, -us (m) weeping

hiems, hiemis (f) winter

hiberna, -orum (n. Pl.) winter-camp

inopia, -ae (f) poverty, want, need

ignis, -is (m) fire

meritum, -i (n) service, favour

mos, moris (m) custom, habit, manner (mos maiorum, mores)

negotium, -ii (n) business, a task

officium, -ii (n) duty

opus, operis (n) work, toil; defenses

opera, -ae (f) effort, attention

ops, opis (f) power, resources, influence

praesidium, -ii (n) guard, protection

pietas, pietatis (f) devotion/loyalty to family, state/nations and gods

ratio, rationis (f) an accounting, reasoning

scala, -ae (f) ladder, stairs

sententia, -ae (f) opinion, purpose

sermo, sermonis (m) conversation, speech

studium, -ii (n) eagerness, zeal

stipendium, -i (n) pay; military service

voluntas, voluntatis (f) wish, will, choice

vulgus, -i (n) mass, mob

aeger, aegra, aegrum - sick, weak

alacer, alacris, alacere - eager, spirited

amplus, a, um - ample, full, spacious

confertus, a, um - crowded together

humilis, -e- on the ground; humble, low

incommodus, a, um - unfortunate, disastrous

incolumis, -e- uninjured, safe

indignus, a, um + ablative= unworthy, undeserving

idoneus, a, um - suitable, appropriate +dative case

levis, -e - light (opposite of gravis, -e)

par, paris - equal, similar + dative

repentinus, a, um - sudden, unexpected

saucius, a, -um - wounded

adeo, (adv.) to such an extent

apud + acc. = in the presence of, with, among

casū (adv.) by chance

confestim (adv.) immediately

eiusmodi - of this kind, of such a kind, so

intra + acc. = within

inter + acc= between, among

procul (adv.) far off, at a distance

quotiens - as often as

quoniam - since

nondum (adv.) not yet

paene (adv.) almost

rursus (adv.) again, backward

sive…sive or seu…seu - whether, or

tametsi - even if, although

unde - whence, from where

vero (postpositive) in fact

"Them's Fighten' Words" or Words of a Mostly Martial Nature.

Be able to decline: eadem magna acies haec fortis manus illa tota pars

attingo, attingere,attigī, attāctusto touch against; touch, reach, arrive at, border (ad + tango)

animadverto,animadvertere, animadverti, animadversum -turn mind to, notice

conspicio, conspire, conspexi, conspectus -to look at attentively, to get sight of, to descry, perceive

contendo, contendere, contendi, contentus - to stretch completely; stretch, strain,

conicio, conicere, conieci, coniectus- to hurl, to throw

consuesco, consuescere, consuevi, consuetus- to be accustomed (to)+ infinitive

cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognotus- to learn, come to know (in the perfect = know).

contendo, contendere, contendi, contentus- to struggle, vie, fight

dedo, dedere, dedidi, deditus- to give up, surrender

desum, deesse, defui- to be lacking; to fail +dative case

expugno(1) to take by storm, capture

existimo(1) to judge, consider, think

efficio, efficere, effeci, effectus- to do, effect(often used impersonally + ut + subjunctive = “it happened that.....”

gero, gerere, gessi, gestum - to wage, conduct, accomplish; wear

incolo, incolere- to dwell, to inhabit

incito(1) to drive forward, incite

munio(4) to fortify

nanciscor, nanciscī, nactus sum- to find, to obtain

nascor, nasci, natus sum- to be born

potior, potiri, potitus sum + ABL or GEN. = to gain possession of

probo(1) approve, commend

praecedo, praecedere, praecessi- to go before,excel

procedo, procedere, processi, processus - to advance, go forward

proficiscor, proficisci, profectus sum- to set out

subvenio, subvenire, subveni, subventum - to come to the aid of + dative

acies, aciei(f) battle line; battle; edge, line of sight

agmen, agminis(n) marching line (novissimum agmen= rear of theline)

auxilium, -ii (n) help

castra, -arum(n) camp

cohors, cohortis(f) cohort

cornu, -us (n) wing (of an army); horn

copiae, -arum(f) troops

equites, equitum(m. pl.) cavalry

equitatus, -us(m) cavalry

eruptio, eruptionis (f) a breaking out

exercitus, -us(m) army

fossa, -ae(f) ditch

frumentum, -i(n) grain, (in plural = crops)

gladius, -ii(m) sword

impedimentum, -i(n) impediment, obstacle, (in plural = baggage train)

impetus, -us(m) attack

latus, lateris(n) side; flank

legatus, -i(m) envoy; lieutenant general

legio, legionis(f) legion (3600-6000 milites)

manus, -us(f) hand; band or group of soldiers

miles, militis(m) soldier

munitio, munitionis(f) fortification

murus, -i(m) wall

obsidio, obsidionis(f) siege, blockade

pars, partis (f) part, side;direction

passus, -us(m) step, pace

pilum, i(n) javelin

praesidium, -ii (n) guard

proelium, -ii(n) battle

profectio, profectionis(f) departure, setting out

salus, salutis (f) safety, salvation

scutum, -i(n) shield

subsidium, -ii(n) help, reinforcement, support

telum, -i(n) weapon; spear

turris, turris(turrim and turrium) (f) tower

usus, -us(m) use (of used as a dative of purpose by Caesar)

vigilia, -ae(f) watch (military)

vallum, -i(n) rampart; wall

virtus, virtutis(f) courage, valour

expeditus, a, um- lightly armed

fortis, forte(adj.) brave, strong

paratus, a, um- prepared

reliquus, a, um - remaining, the rest

tardus, a, um- slow

apud (prep. + acc.) near, among, in the presence of

ne...quidem= not even (surrounds the word that it emphasizes)

qua(relative) where

fere(adv.) nearly, almost

praeterea(adv.) besides, moreover

procul (adv.) at a distance, far away

prope(adv.) near

propterea quod- because, on account of the fact that

Phrases or Idioms:

Res est testimonio- “the matter is for (the purpose of) evidence”

capere consilium- to adopt plan

de summis rebus - “concerning the most serious circumstances”

in ipso negotio:'in the midst of action'.

ad hunc modum- in this manner

in perpetuum- forever

se receperunt- they retreated

longe lateque- far and wide

eodem die- on the same day

subductis navibus- ships drawn up

magna manu- with a large group of men

summo loco- in the highest position

milia passuum- a Roman mile

numero hostium habēre- to consider as an enemy

Vocabulary Lists AP — Latin for Rabbits (4)

Acheron, Acherontis (m) River of Hades

Lacus Avernus - Lake near Cumae and entrance to Underworlld

Charon, Charontis (m) Charon, ferryman of souls across the river Styx

Cocytus, -i (m) river in the underworld

Dis, Ditis (m) Pluto, Hades, god of underworld

Hecate - Infernal version of Diana

Proserpina, -ae (f) Peresphone

Iris, Iridis (f) Iris, messenger of Juno and goddess of the rainbow

abluo, abluere, ablui, ablutus - to wash (off)

adnitor, adniti, adnisus sum - to lean on; struggle

aestuo (1) boil, seethe, rage

arceo, acrere, arcui - to keep off, defend

bacchor (1) to rave, rush wildly (what are Bacchantes/Maenades?)

cado, cadere, cecidi, casus - to fall

concutio, concutere, concussi, concussus - to shake, shatter

consuesco, consuescere, consuevi, consuetus - to be accustomed (to)+ infinitive

cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognotus - to learn, come to know (in the perfect = know).

deficio, deficere, defeci, defectus - fail, faint

defungor, defungi, defunctus, a, um - perform, finish +ablative case

desum, deesse, defui - to be lacking; to fail +dative case

efficio, efficere, effeci, effectus - to do, effect(often used impersonally + ut + subjunctive = “it happened that.....”

fremo, fremere, fremui- roar, grown

iaceo, iacere, iacui - to lie

iuvo, iuvare, iuvi, iutus - to please, to help (often used impersonally)

haereo, haerēre, haesī, haesum - to cling

haurio, haurire, hausī, haustus - to drain, drink in

glomero (1) to gather, collect

miseror, miserari, miseratus sum - to pity

nasciscor, nascisci, nactus sum - to find, to obtain

oro (1) to plead, to beg, to beseech, to pray

queror, querī, questus sum - to complain

recedo, recedere, recessī, recussus - to back, retreat

seco, secare, secui, sectus - to cut, cleave, slice

solvo, solvere, solvi, solutus - to free, loosen, set free

spargo, spargere, sparsi, sparsus - to scatter, sprinkled

sperno, spernere, sprevi, spretus - scorn, reject

spumo (1) to foam

vereor, verērī, veritus sum - to fear, be afraid of

verro, verrere, verri, versus - to sweep (over)

aether, aetheris (m) upper air; heaven

amnis, -is (m) river

amictus, -ūs (m) cloak, robe

calor, caloris (m) heat, warmth

canities, canitiei (f) whiteness

casus, -ūs (m) misfortune disater

casu (adv.) by change, accidentally

comes, comitis (m/f) companion

consilium, -ii (n) plan, counsel

copia, -ae (f) abundance; troops, forces; supplies

culmen, culminis (n) top, summit

crinis, crinis (m) hair

folium, -i (n) leaf

gemitus, -ūs (m) roar, groan, lament

harena, -ae (f) sand, beach

halitus, -ūs (m) breath

heros, herois (m) hero, great warrior

lacus, -ūs (m) lake

mentum, -i (n) chin

mens, mentis (f) mind; thought, intension

mos, moris (m) custom, manner

mors, mortis (f) death

omen, ominis (n) omen

opera, -ae (f) effort, attention, service, hard work

ops, opis (f) power, support ; in plural - resources; wealth, influence

opus, operis (n) work, task; fortification

palus, paludis (f) swamp, marsh

ramus, -i (m) brach of a tree

remus, -i (m) oar of ship

rota, -ae (f) wheel

ripa, -ae (f) bank

rogus, -i (m)

senectus, senectutis (f) old age

sinus, -ūs (m) fold, boson, bay, hollow, indentation

sors, sortis (f) lot, chance

spatium, -ii (n) space, interval of time

torus, -i (m) couch, bed

usus, -us (m) use, need, purpose (usuiis a common dative of purpose)

tumultus, -ūs (m) tumult, uprising, clamor

vadum, -i (n) shallow, shoal

angustus, a, um - narrow

amplus, a, um - ample, full, spacious

crudus, a, um - raw, fresh; bloody

expeditus, a, um - fast, unimpeded

exsanguis, -e bloodless, lifeless, pale

examinis, -e - breathless,

extremus, a, um - final, last, extreme

impertius, a, um - unskilled + gen. case

incolumis, -e- unharmed, safe

incultus, a, um - wild, unkempt

iniquus, a, um - unfair, unjust, hostile

inhumatus, a, um - unburied

inops, inopis (adj.) needy, destitute, bereft of

lividus, a, um - blue, dark

sordidus, a, um - dirty, squalid

trepidus, a, um - agitated, trembling

aliter (adv.) otherwise

non aliter quam - not otherwise than, just as (introduces a simile)

demum (adv.) at length, finally

enim - for, indeed, truly

iuxta + acc. case = next to , close to

inde(adv.) thence, thereupon, afterward

quia - because

totiens - so often

totidem - the same number

ūnā (adv.) together, at the same time

Be able to decline: haec pulchrior speciesor hoc tōtum foedus

Elissa, ae (f) Phoenician name of Dido

Thyias, Thyiadis (f) cultic follower of Dionysus

audeo, audere, ausus sum - to dare

ambio, ambire, ambivi, ambitus - to go around (in search of support)

cano, canere - to sing

excio, excire, excivi, excitus - to - to excite, rouse, stir up

foveo, fovere, fovi - to keep warm, cherish, to caress lovingly

fraudo (1) to deprive of, to cheat out of + ablative case

fundo (1) to lay a foundation; to found

fundo, fundere, fudi, fusus - to pour

fulgeo, fulgere, fulsi - to flash; to shine bright

gaudeo, gaudere, gavisus sum - to rejoice

gigno, gignere, genui, genitus - to birth, give birth to

mando (1) to entrust; to order

maturo (1) to hasten + complementary infinitive
meditor meditari, meditatus sum - to ponder; plan; contemplate

misereor, misereri + genitive case = to pity

piget, pigere, piguit (impersonal verb + acc. + inf.) it displeases, its causes regret

praetexō, praetexere praetexuī, praetextus - to weave in front; to fringe; conceal (pretext)

propero (1) to hurry, to hasten

potior, potiri, potitus sum (+ abl. or gen.) to take possession of

rumpo, rumpere, rupi, ruptus - to break, to burst (rumpens ilia)

tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatus - to raise, to lift up

saevio, saevire - to rage, to be cruel

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - to take

surgo, surgere, surrexi, surrectus - to rise

umeo, umere - to be wet

volo, velle, volui - to wish

volo, volare - to fly

aditus, -us (m) an approach

aether, aetheris (m) - upper air, sky

aequor, aequoris (n) sea

arx, arcis (f) citadel

ars, artis (f) skill, art (Ars Amatoria)

artus, -us (m) limbs

aspectus, -us (m) sight, vision

aura, -ae (f) breeze

classis, classis (f) fleet

coniugium, -i (n) marriage

coma, -ae (f) hair

conubium -i (n) marriage

custos, custodis (m) guard

cruor, cruoris (m) blood, gore

dolus, -i (m) trick, deception

dulcis, dulce - sweet (est dulce rapere bovinam praedam)

faucēs, faucium (f) the jaws, throat, mouth, entrance, jaws

foedus, foederis (n) treaty, contract

funus, funeris (n) funeral, death

grando, grandinis (f) hail

laena, -ae (f) cloak

limen, liminis (n) threshold, doorway

lumen, luminis (n) light, eye

metus, -us (m) fear

mūnus, mūneris (n) gift; games; duty (munificent)

monitus, -us (m) warning, admonition

orgia, -orum (n. pl.) secret rites, mysteries

otium, -ii (n) leisure, time of leisure

planta, -ae (f) sole of foot; foot

sidus, sideris (n) star

solum, solī (n) ground

sors, sortis (f) lot, fortune, fate, chance

species, speciei (f) appearance

spons, spontis (f) will, volition

tectum, tectī (n) building, palace; shelter; roof

aeger, aegra, aegrum - sick, weak; wounded

alienus, a, um - foreign, alien

amarus, a, um - bitter

bovinus, a, um - bovine (bovinity)

caecus, a, um - blind

conscius, a, um - privy to, aware of + dative

ensis, ensis (m) sword

foedus, a, um - foul, disgusting

furtivus, a, um - secret, furtive

hibernus, a, um - winter, of the winter

infestus, a, um - hostile

incolumis, -e - uninjured, safe

inops, inopis (adj.) lacking in wealth; devoid of + genitive case

mirabilis, mirabile - wonderous (mirabile dictu)

mollis, -e soft; kind (mollify)

pernix, pernicis (adj.) swift (pernicious)

perfidus, a, um - treacherous, false; deceitful

pinguis, pingue -fat, rich

potior, potius (comp. adj.) more powerful; stronger; more important

saucius, a, um - wounded

socius, a, um - allied

tutus, a, um - safe

undosus, a, um - abounding in waves, stormy

uxorius, a, um - under a wife’s control

velox, velocis (adj.) swift

continuo (adv.) immediately, at once

nusquam (adv.) no where

numquam (adv.) never

ocius (adv.) rahter quickly; quickly, speedily

omnino (adv.)wholly, entirely, altogether

pro re (legal idiom) - for my own case

tandem (adv.) at last, finally

ultro (adv.) beyond, from the other side, in reply

a(d)spicio, -spicere, -spexi, -spectus - to see, behold, look at

amplector, amplectī, amplexus sum - to embrace (amplexus)

attollo, attollere - raise up, lift

aveho, avehere, avexi, avectus - to carry away, convey

careo, carere, carui +abl. - to lack, be free from

dignor, dignari, dignatus sum +abl. - to deem worthy

everto, evertere, eversi, eversus - to over turn; destroy

for, farī, fatus sum - to speak

excutio, excutere, excussī, excussus - to shake off

fugleo, fulgere - to shine, flash

haurio, haurire, hausi, haustum - to drain, to drink in

haereo, haereo, haesi, haesum - to cling, to stick, to get stuck; be embarrassed

incedo, incedere, incessi, incessus - to go forth, stride, walk majestically

incumbo, incumbere, incubui +dative- to lean upon, hand over

includo, inculdere, inclusi, inclusus - to enclose, confine

insto, instare - to press on, urge +dative

iuvo, iuvare, iuvi - to please, to help (often used impersonally)

lambo (1) to lick

lateo, latere, latui - to hide, to lurk (latent)

ligo (1) to bind, fasten

lego, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to choose

macto (1) slaughter

occido, occidere, occidi, occasus - to fall, to perish

occulto (1) to hide (occult)

pario, parere, peperi, partus - to give birth, gain, acquire

sinuo (1) fold, curve, twist (insinuate)

statuo, statuere, statui, statutus - establish, set up

sisto, sistere, steti, status - stand, stop, stay

sterno, sternere, stravi, stratus - to lay low; spread; strew

suscito (1) to stir, to arouse

supero (1) to surmount, overcome

tegō, tegere, tēxī, tectus - to cover

tueor, tueri, tutus sum - to watch over; protect

ulcisor, ulicisci, ultus sum - to avenge (Temple of Mars Ultor)

aether, eris (m) upper air; heavens

ala, -ae (f) wing

amnis, -is (m) river

anguis, -is (m) snake

artus, artūs (m) limb, joint, body

arx, arcis (f) citadel

caterva, -ae (f) crowd, band

collum, -i (n) neck

collis, collis (m) hill

conubium, -ii (n) marriage

culpa, -ae (f) fault, offense, blame

culmen, culminis (n) peak, summit, top; acme

custos, custodis (m) guard

dolus, -i (m) trick, fraud, deciet

dolor, doloris (m) grief; angry; pain

ensis, -is (m) sword; knife

error, erroris (m) error; trick, deceit; a wandering

facies, faciei (m) face; appearance

fictum, -i (n) falsehood

fragor, fragoris (m) a crashing, crashing noise

insania, -ae (f) madness, frenzy

gemitus, -ūs (m) groan, wailing

latus, lateris (n) side, flank

letum, -i (n) death

lignum, -i (n) wood

nepos, nepotis (m) descendent

pulvis, pulveris (m) dust

quisquis, quidquid (indef. pronoun) whoever, whatever

robur, roburis (m) oak; strength

rota, -ae (f) wheel

sermo, sermonis (m) speech, conversation

solum, -i (n) ground, soil, earth

sors, sortis (f) lot, chance; fate, destiny

uterus, -i (m) womb, belly

uterque, utraque, utrumque - each, both

vitta, -ae (f) garland, fillet

conscius, a, um - aware, privy to

defessus, a, um - weary; exhausted

extremus, a, um- final, last, furthest

incolumis, -e - safe, unharmed, uninjured

invisus, a, um - hated; hateful

laevus, a, um - left; stupid; ill-omened

fetus, a, um - teeming with, pregnant with

foedus, a, um - foul, disgusting, filthy

furtivus, a, um - stolen, secret

pernix, pernicis (adj.) swift, active

secundus, a, um - following, favorable

tenax, tenacis (adj.) holding

tutus, a, um - safe

umidus, a, um - damp, dewy, wet

enim (adv.) for, indeed, truly

denique (adv.) finally, at last

nusquam (adv.) nowhere; never

pariter (adv.) equally, alike

passim (adv.) everywhere, here and there

procul (adv.) at or from a distance

totidem - the same number; so many

totiens - so often

Be able to decline: haec sola visor quoddam infelix animalor idem altum mare

Acestes, -ae (m) king of Sicily

Aeolus, -i (m) Aeolus, King of Wind ( from Homer'sOdyssey)

Dardanus, a, um = Trojan, of Dardanus, legendary king of Troy

Latona, -ae (f) Leto, mother of Apollo and Diana

Ilium, Ilii (n) Illium = Trot as in Iliad =story of Iliumor Ilioupersis,destruction of Troy

Iulus, -i (m) son of Aeneas AKA Ascanius, hence the Gens Iulii.

Poeni, -orum (m. pl.) Carthaginians, Phoenicians

Teurcri- orum (m. p.) descendant of Teucer (Who the hell is Teucer?)

Tyrius, a, um - Tyrian or of Tyre, a Phoenician city in the Levant

Hesperia, -ae (f) land in the west

Saturnius, a, um - of Saturn

adsurgo, adsurgere, adsurrexi, adsurrectus- to rise up, to stand up

aspicio, aspicere, aspexi, aspectus- to look at, behold, look upon

desisto, desistere, destiti- to leave off, desist

cieo, ciere, civi, citus- rouse, stir

defigo, defigere, defixi, defixus- fix, to fasten

haereo, haereo, haesi, haesum- to cling, to stick, to get stuck; be embarrassed

incedo, incedere, incessi, incessus - to go forth, stride, walk majestically

insto, instare - to press on + dative

mollio (4) to soften

parco, parcere, peperci +dative = to spare, pardon

populo (1) to devastate,

stupeo, stupere, stupui - to stand fixed, to be dazed

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - take, use up, consume (alsoadsumo)

surgo, surgere, surrexi, surrectus - to rise up, to stand up

solvo, solvere, solvi, solutus - to loosen, set free; bring an end to

veho, vehere, vexi, vectus - to convey, carry

veto, vetere, vetui - to forbid, prevent

voluto (1) to roll over and over and over and over and over....

aequor, aequoris (n) sea, level surface of the sea

aes, aeris (n) bronze

anima, -ae (f)soul, spirit, ghost [breath , wind, air]. Transf., [the breath of life, vital principle, soul]; 'animam edere', [to give up the ghost]; poet., [life-blood]; meton., [a living being]; sometimes = animus, [rational soul].

animus, -i (m)[the spiritual or rational principle of life in man]. More specifically: (1) [the seat of feeling ,the heart]; 'animi causa', [for pleasure]; loc. (or genit.) 'animi', [at heart]. (2) [character,disposition]; as a trait of character (esp. in plur.) [courage, spirit, vivacity]; also [pride, arrogance]. (3) [the seat of the will, intention]: 'habeo in animo', [I am resolved]. (4) [the seat of thought, intellect, mind, memory, consciousness].

antrum, -i (n) cave

arx, arcis (f) citadel

aurum, -i (n) gold

auris, -is (f) ears

aura, -ae (f) breeze

caterva, -ae (f) crowd

caecus, a, um - blind

clarus, a, um - clear, bright; distinguished, noble

cura, curae (f) care, worry, anxiety (sinecure)

discrimen, discriminis (n) a dividing line; critical moment; crisis; hardship

foedus, foederis (n) treaty, contract

foris, -is (f) door, gate

harena, -ae (f) sand (arena)

inceptum, -i (n) beginning, undertaking

iuvenis, -is (m) youth

ius, iuris (n) law

mare, maris (n) sea

moles, molis (f) a mass; undertaking, burden

mos, moris (m) custom

metus, -us (m) fear

officium, -ii (n) duty, kindness, favour, service

opus, operis (n) work, labour, task

ops, ops (f) power, influence; resources, wealth

ora, -ae (f) shore

praeda, -ae (f) booty

ramus, -i (m) branch

remus, -i (m) oar

sors, sortis (f) lot, chance; fate

turbo, turbinis (m) storm; whirlwind

vis, vis (f) force; in plural = strength

acutus, a, um - sharp

aetherius, a, um- of the upper air, ethereal

ater, atra, atrum - black

avidus, a, um - eager

barbarus, a, um - foreign, strange, uncivilized

crudelis, crudele- cruel, bloody

cunctus, a, um - all

infelix, infelicis - unhappy, ill-fated, barren

laetus, a, um - happy

memor, memoris (adj.) mindful, remembering + genitive

potens, potentis (adj.) powerful, ruling over + genitive

subnixus, a, um + abl. resting on (from nitor, niti)

tutus, a, um - safe

at, ast (adversative conj.)

adhuc (adv.) to his point, till now

coram (adv.) openly, publicly, face to face

equidem - truly, indeed, certainly

pariter (adv.) equally

praeterea (adv.) here after, besides

quippe (adv.) of course, certain (tone?)

seu...seu (sive...sive)- whether...or

Vocabulary Lists AP — Latin for Rabbits (5)

Be able to decline: haec veteris visor illud atrum mareor hic pius vir

Verb game on:eripio, eripere, eripui, ereptus or for, fari, fatus sum

Anchises, -ae (m) acc. = Anchisen - Trojan Prince and father of Aeneas

Argi, -orum (m. pl.) Argos, city in Greece where Juno is worshipped

Argivus, a, um - Argive, Greek

Danaus, a, um - Danaan, Greek

Ganymēdēs, -is (m) Trojan boy and son of Laomedon, king of Troy

Lāvīnius, a, um - Lavinian, of Lavinium

Parcae, -arum (f) Fates

Teucrus, a, um - Teucrian, Trojan (Teucer was a king of Troy)

Troia, -ae (f) city of Troy or Ilium

Tyrius, a, um - Tyrian, of Tyre, a Phoenician city on the coast of the Levant

Saturnius, a, um - of Saturn

Trōs, Trōis (m) Trojan

Words of Special Significance:

fatum, fatī (n) fate

moles, molis (f) a mass, weight, burden

pietas, pietatis (f) loyalty, devotion

pius, a, um - dutiful

condo, condere, condidi, conditus - to found, to establish

volvo, volvere, volui, volutus - to move in a curved course; to roll; to unroll; to undergo

vatēs, vatis (m) bard, prophet, singer; poet

accendo, accendere, accendi, accensus - to inflame; enrage

adeo, adire, adiī, aditus - to approach, encounter

adsum, adesse, adfui - to present, to be at hand

ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus - to burn; be eager (an ardent arsonist)

arceo, arcere, arcui - keep off, defend, restrain (arcane)

cano, canere, cecinī, cantus - to sing

cerno, cernere, crevi, cretus - to discern, perceive

doleo, dolere, dolui - to suffer, grieve, resent

eripio, eripere, eripui, ereptus - to snatch away

for, fari, fatus sum - to speak

foveo, fovere, fovi - to cherish, fondle

fundo, fundere, fudi, fusus - to pour (effusive)

furo, furere, furui - to rage, rave, be frantic

iacto (1) to toss, buffet (freq. of iacio, iacere)

impello, impellere, impulī, impulsus - to strike against, drive, force

incedo, incedere, incessi, incessus - to stride; go forth; walk

labor, labi, lapsus sum - to slipe, to slide

laedo, laedere, laesi, laesus - to hurt, strike, offend

metuo, metuere, metui - to fear

patior, pati, passus sum - to suffer, endure; allow

pateo, patere, patui - to lie open, to extend

ruo, ruere, rui - fall; rush; sink

sino, sinere, sivi - to permit, allow

tendo, tendere, tetendi, tentus - to stretch

voluto (1) to turn over, roll

volvo, volvere, volui, volutus - to move in a curved course; to roll; to unroll; to undergo

aequor, aequoris (n) sea

altum, -i (n) the deep, the sea

arx, arcis (f) citadel, fort; height

ara, ae (f) altar

arvum, -i (n) field

aura, -ae (f) breeze, air

aurum, -i (n) gold

auris, auris (f) ear

causa, -ae (f) cause, reason

casus, -ūs (m) misfortune, chance

cura, -ae (f) care, anxiety,

currus, -ūs (m) chariot

cursus, ūs (m) a running, course

dolor, doloris (m) pain, suffering, mental anguish

dolus, dolī (m) trick, deception

donum, -i (n) gift

fatum, -i (n) fate

fors, fortis (f) chance, fortune

fluctus, us (m) wave, tide, flood, sea

furia, -ae (f) rage, madness

genus, generis (n) race; kind, origin,

gens, gentis (f) clan, race, nation

litus, litoris (n) beach, shore

moenia, -ium (n) walls

numen, numinis (n) divine authority, divinity (numinous)

ōra, -ae (f) margin, border, coastline

ōs, ōris (n) month, face (oral, orifice)

os, ossis (n) bone (ossified)

pontus, -i (m) sea

pons, pontis (m) bridge

portus, -us (m) port

porta, -ae (f) gate

progenies, progeniei (f) offspring

pelagus, -i (n) sea

pectus, pectoris (n) chest; heart; soul

relinquiae, ārum (fe. pl.) the leavings, remnants

sidus, sideris (n) star

socius, -i (m) ally, comrade, follower

sanguis, -inis (m) blood (sanguine)

somnus, -i (m) sleep, slumber; dream

turbo, turbinis (m) whirlwind

asper, aspera, asperum - rough, harsh (per aspera ad astra)

ater, atra, atrum - dark, black, gloomy

caelestis, -e(adj.) of the sky, heavenly

carus, a, um - dear + dative case

dives, divitis (adj.) rich (1 term.)

fessus, a, um - tired, weary

immanis, -e- huge, monstrous, enormous

insignis, -e- marked, distinguished

invīsus, a, um - hated

infelix, infelicis (adj.) unfortunate, unhappy, accursed

inferus, a, um - low, below, underneath (infernal)

memor, memoris (adj.) mindful + genitive case (mindfulness - whatever the hell that is)

saevus, a, um - cruel, savage

vetus, veteris (1 term. adj.) old (veteran, inveterate)

enim - for, indeed, in truth

insuper (adv.) above, besides

lātē (adv.) widely, far and wide

longē(adv.) far off

necdum (adv.) not yet

olim (adv.) once upon a time, once

praeterea (adv.) besides, hereafter

qua (adv.) where, in anyway

quippe - truly, indeed surely

una (adv.) together, at the same time

unde - from which, whenc

Vocabulary Lists AP — Latin for Rabbits (6)

Verb game on: cōgō, cōgere, cōēgī, cōactus or vereor, verērī, veritus sum

Be able to decline: hoc līberum mūnus or istud turpe spatium

cingō, cingere, cinxī, cinctus - to surround, to grid; to equip

cōgō, cōgere, cōēgī, cōactus - to compel, to bring together

communicō (1) to share, to impart

comprendō, comprehendere, comprehendī, comprehensus - to grasp; to seize (comprehensive, comprehension)

concidō, concidere, concidī - to fall, to collapse

concīdō, concīdere, concīdī, concīsus - to cut down

contendō, contendere, condendī, contentus - to strive, to hasten

dēfīgō, dēfīgere, dēfīxī, dēfīxus - to stick fast,

discō, discere, didicī - to learn

ēdūcō, ēdūcere, ēdūxī, ēductus - to lead out

expectō, expectāre - to look out for; wait for

haereō, haerēre - to cling (inherent)

hauriō, haurīre, hausī, hausus - to drain, to empty

iactō (1) to toss (frequentive)

iūdicō, iūdicāre - to judge

imperō (1) to command + dative of person commanded

iuvō, iuvāre, iuvī - to help

legō, legere, lēgī, lectus - to chose, to pick

ligō, ligare - to bind, to tie

mandō (1) to entrust

necō, necāre - to kill

noscō, noscere, nōvī, nōtus - to recognize, to learn, to be familiar with; to know

pareō, parēre, paruī - to obey + dative case

pariō, parere, peperī, partus - to give birth to, to produce

parō, parāre, parāvī, parātus - to prepare (semper parātus)

pellō, pellere, pepulī, pulsus - to drive

tangō, tangere, tetigī, tāctus - to touch (tangent, tactile)

percutiō, percutere, percussī, percussus - to strike hard

praeficiō, praeficere - to put an accusative in charge of a dative

praesum, praeesse, praefuī - to be in charge of + dative

rumpō, rumpere, rupī, ruptus - to burst

servō (1) to save, to keep

serviō, servīre - to serve + dative

tradō, tradere, tradidī, traditus - to hand over; surrender

transfīgō, transfīgere, transfīxī, transfīxus - to pierce, thrust through

tegō, tegere, texī, tectus - to cover

vehō, vehere, vēxī, vectus - to carry, to convey

vereor, verērī, veritus sum - to fear

versor (1) to be engaged; to be turned

aequor, aequoris (n) level surface; sea

aditus, aditūs (m) approach, access (ad + eo)

anima, animae (f) breath, spirit, soul

animus, animī (m) mind, heart; spirit, courage

biduum, biduī (n) two day period

caedēs, caedis (f) slaughter, murder

certamen, certaminis (n) contest, conflict

copia, copiae (f) supply, abundance; in plural: troops, forces

facinus, facinoris (n) crime, bad deed; deed

fās (indecl.) right, just according to divine law

foedus, foederis (n) treaty; contract

ignis, ignis (m) fire

inopia, -ae (f) poverty, want

lapis, lapidis (m) stone

liber, librī (m) book

modus, modī (m) manner, form; measure

morbus, morbī (m) disease, illness

mūnus, mūneris (n) service, duty, gift; tax

mundus, mundī (m) world, universe

nefās (indecl.) wrong, not just according to divine law

obsidiō, obsidiōnis (f) seige

plērusque, plēraque, plērumque - very many

spatium, spatiī (n) space

supplicium, -iī (n) punishment

tectum, tectī (n) roof, building, hall, palace

vāgīna, -ae (f) sheath

ambo, ambae ambo - both (ambidextrous)

caelestis, caeleste - celestial, heavenly

creber, crebra, crebrum - frequent

cupidus, a, um - desirous (Kamya est cupida mordendārum ursārum)

gratia, gratiae (f) favour, influence; thanks

immanis, immane- immense, enormous

immitis, immite - fierce, cruel (Virginia est immitis)

insignis, insigne- distinguished, remarkable

indignus, a, um - unworthy of + ABLATIVE CASE (Trey est indignus magnā laude)

invisus, a, um- hated, hateful, odious

memor, menoris(adj.) mindful, remembering + genitive case

- unwilling

memor, menoris(adj.) mindful, remembering + genitive case

idōneus, a, um - suited to

imperitus, a, um - unskilled, inexperienced

impius, impia, impium - unholy, impious

incommodus, a, um - unfortunate, disastrous

līber, lībera, līberum - free; as substantive = children

reliquus, a, um - the remaining, the rest

superior, superius - higher, earlier

temerārius, a, um - rash, inconsiderate

turpis, turpe - ugly, shameful

tumulus, tumulī (m) pile, heap, mound, hill

cōnfestim (adv.) immediately

inde - from there, then

modo (adv.) only, recently, just now

nam - for

necdum - not yet

nē…quidem = not even

praeter (prep. + acc.) beyond, past

quippe - surely, indeed

quoad - until, as far as, as long as

quotannis - every year, yearly

unde - from where, whence

1) Be able to decline: carus vaults; magnum munus; hoc os; nullum numen

2) Expect verb game on: for, fari, fatus sum andcolo, colere, colui, cultus

fertur = he, she, it is said

abdo, abdere, abdidi, abditus- to put away, hide, remove, secrete

cano, canere, cecini, cantus- to sing

colo, colere, colui, cultus- to worship; to cultivate

comprehendo, comprehendere, comprehendi- seize, grasp, arrest

condo, condere, condidi, conditus- to found, establish

conor, conari, conatus sum- to try

confido, confidere, confisus sum(semi-transvestite) +dative = to trust

conspicor(1) to catch sight of; perceive

contego, contegere, contexi, contextum- cover over

deficio, deficere, defeci, defectum- to give out, to fail

dimico(1) to brandish weapon; contend

excido, excidere- to fall from, perish

fertur = he, she, it is said

for, fari, fatus sum- to speak

foveo, fovere-to keep warm; cherish, support

iacto(1) to toss, buffet

immolo(1) to sacrifice , immolate

impello, impellere, impuli, impulsus- to drive, force, strike

laedo, laedere, laesi, laesum- to hurt, injure; offend

metuo, metuere, metui- fear, dread

patior, pati, passus sum- to suffer, endure;to allow+ acc. + inf.

rego, regere, rexi, rectum- to rule, lead, direct

servo, servare- to keep, preserve

sino, sinere, sivi, situs- permit, allow

succurro, succurrere- to aid, run to support + dative

versor(1) to be engaged in

volvo, volvere, volvi, volutus- to wind, roll, twist

alter, altera, alterum(-ius paradigm) the other, another, one…the other

altum, -i(n) the deep; the sea

aequor, aequoris(n) a flat level surface;the sea

arx, arcis (f) citadel

causa, -ae(f) cause, reason; case

casus, -us(m) chance; misfortune, disaster casū = by chance

conspectus, -us(m) look, sight, view

currus, -us(m) chariot

excidium, -ii(n) destruction, overthrow

fama, -ae(f) rumour, story, report

furiae, -arum(f) madness, rage

furtum, -i(n) theft, robbery

gens,gentis(f) race, clan

iniuria, -ae(f) injury, wrong

litus, litoris(n) shore

moenia, -ium(n. pl.) walls

moles, molis(f) mass, burden, difficulty

morbus, -i(m) disease, sickness, illness

munus, muneris(n) service, duty; gift

noxia, -ae(f) fault, offence, crime

numen, numinis(n) divine spirit, divine power

opinio, opinionis(f) opinion, thought, belief

opus, operis(n) task, work; fortification; need

ops, opis(f) help, resources, power, wealth

ora, orae(f) shore

os, oris(n) mouth; face

os, ossis(n) bone

pilum, -i(n) spear

progenies, progeniei(f) offspring

quisquam, quaequam, quidquam - anybody, anyone, anything

sanguis, sanguinis(m) blood; family, race

sal, salis(n) salt

verutum, -i (n) javalin

vultus, -us(m) face; expression

asper, aspera, asperum - harsh, rough, fierce

caelestis, caeleste - celestial, heavenly

carus, a, um- dear +dative case

confertus, a, um - crowded together, densely packed

dives, divitis(adj.) wealthy, rich

immanis, immane- immense, enormous

immitis, immite - fierce, cruel

insignis, insigne- distinguished, remarkable

indignus, a, um - unworthy of + ABLATIVE CASE

invisus,a, um- hated, hateful, odious

memor, menoris(adj.) mindful, remembering + genitive case

saevus, a, um- cruel

tot(indecl. adj.) so many

quot (indecl. adj.) how many?

turpis, turpe- shameful, ugly, vile

uter, utra, utrum? Which of two (-ius paradigm)

uterque, utraque, utrumque - each of two

vetus, veteris(adj.) old

vivus, a, um- living, alive

admodum(adv.) completely, just about

causā+ preceding genitive = "for the sake of"

clam(adv.) in secret

circum+ acc. = around

dum(subord. conj.) + indicative = while

dum (subord. conj.) + subjunctive = until

enim- for, indeed, in truth

magis(adv.) more, rather

necdum- not yet

nondum- not yet

ob+ acc. - on account of

palam(adv.) openly, publicly

paulatim(adv.) little by little

qua(adv.) where, in any way

quoque(adv.) also

fertur = he, she, it is said

Expect a verb game and be able to decline: istud triste numen

adipiscor, adipisci, adeptus sum - to obtain, get

adhaereo, adhaerere, adhaesi - to cling to, to stick to

comperio, comperire, comperi, compertus - to find out; to discover

concedo, concedere - to withdraw

consisto, consistere, constiti - to stand (still), to stop

concido, concidere, concidi, concisum - to cut down

constipo (1) to crowd together in, to stuff

confido, confidere, confisus sum (semi-deponent) - to believe, to trust, to rely on + dative

conficio, conficere, confeci, confectus - to exhaust; to finish

insto, instare, institi - press on, take position

irrumpo, irrumpere, irrupi, irruptus, a, um - burst in

ligo (1) to tie, bind (ligament)

moror, morari, moratus sum - to delay, linger

morior, mori, mortuus sum - to die

nascor, nasci, natus sum - to be born

nitor, niti, nixus or nisus sum - to rely on (+abl. case); to struggle to + infinitive

noceo, nocere, nocui, nocitus - to harm + dative case [often used impersonally in Caesar:ipsi Titurio nihil nocitum iri= "that no harm will be done to Titurius himself"]

procedo, procedere, processi, processum - to proceed, to advance

prodo, prodere, prodidi, proditus - to bring fourth; betray

progredior, progredi, progessus sum - to advance

subvenio, subvenire, subveni - come up to; aid, relieve

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - to take; spend

tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatus - raise; destroy

soleo, solere, solitus sum - to be accustomed to + infinitive

versor (1) to be engaged, move about; to live

vereor, vereri, veritus sum - to fear, be afraid

adventus, -us (m) arrival (advent)

aedes, aedis (f) building; temple

aetas, aetatis (f) age, time of life

auctoritas, auctoritatis (f) influence, clout

beneficium, -ii (n) kindness, favour, benefit

caedes, caedis (f) murder, slaughter, killing

casus, -us (m) chance; misfortune, disaster

certamen, certaminis (n) contest, conflict

cor, cordis (n) heart

epistula, -ae (f) letter, missive

facinus, facinoris (n) deed; bad deed; crime

fama, -ae (f) rumour, story, hearsay

fas (n. indeclinable) right or just according to divine law (opposite is nefas).

gratia, -ae (f) influence, favour; thanks

iniuria, -ae (f) wrong, injury, injustice

ius, iuris (n) justice, law, right

liberi, - orum (m) children

moles, molis (f) a mass, a weight

morbus, -i (m) disease, sickness, illness

poena, -ae (f) punishment

nutus, -us (m) a nod

numen, numinis (n) divine spirit; divinity

obsidio, obsidionis (f) siege, blockade

ratio, rationis (f)- a reckoning , account, consideration, calculation; 'rationem ducere', [to compute]; [any transaction, affair, business;a reason, motive, ground; a plan, scheme, system; reasonableness, method, order; a theory, doctrine, science; the reasoning faculty].

scutum, -i (n) shield

turris, -is (f) tower (Italian torre)

vagina, -ae (f) sheath, scabbard

vallum, -i (n) rampart, wall

acer, acris, acre - sharp; fierce; bitter; eager (acrid)

asper, aspera, asperum - rough, harsh, violent

confertus, a, um - crowded together

creber, crebra, crebrum - crowded, frequent

cupidus, a, um - desirous, eager

immanis, -e enormous, immense

inferus, a, um - below, lower

impeditus, a, um- hindered, impeded

impius, a, um - impious, unholy

incolumis -e [uninjured , safe and sound]

quidam, quaedam, quoddam (indefinite adj.) a certain

quinam, quaenam, quodnam - which, that

quispiam, quaepiam, quodpiam - who?, what?

repentinus, a, um - sudden

turpis, -e- ugly, shameful, disgusting (turpitude)

uter, utra, utrum - which of two?

vivus, a, um - living, alive

admodum (adv.) completely, just about

aut...aut (conjunctions) either...or

bis (adv.) twice

deinceps (adv.) one after another, successively

intus (adv.) within

intra (prep.+ acc.) within, among

confestim (adv.) immediately

ne...quidem = not even

neve - or not, and not, nor

nondum (adv.) not yet

pridie (adv.) on the day before, on the previous day.

quidem - infact, indeed

quoque - and also, also

rursus (adv.) again, back

sicut - just as, so as

extra (prep. + acc.) outside, beyond, outside of

Be able to decline: hoc opus &eadem fides

Expect verb game on the back for repello or pario

adipiscor, adipisci, adeptus sum - get, obtain, reach

ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus - to burn; to be eager

cado, cadere, cecidi, casus - to fall

cedo, cedere, cessi, cessus - to move, to withdraw

cingo, cingere, cinxi, cinctus - to surround

coepi, coepisse, coeptum - to begin (defective verb)

concito (1) to incite, stir, impel

confiteor, confiteri, confessus sum - to admit, to reveal

confido, confidere, confisus sum - to trust, believe (semi-deponent)

conspicio, conspicere, conspexi, conspectus - to see, to behold

consulo, consulere, consului, consultus - to consult, to consider

compleo, complere, complevi, completus - to fill

debeo, debere, debui, debitus - to owe; ought

despero (1) to give up, to have not hope

disco, discere, didici - to learn, get to know

excito (1) excite, inspire; raise

excedo, excedere, excessi, excessus - to go out

impetro (1) to obtain, accomplish

interpono, interponere, interposui - to introduce

labor, labi, lapsus sum - to slipe, glide

minuo, minuere, minui - to diminish

munio, (4) to fortify

nanciscor, nancisci, nactus sum - to obtain, meet

nascor, nasci, natus sum - to be born

nosco, noscere, novi, notus - to recognize; know, learn

nego (1) to deny, to say ...not

nitor, niti, nisus sum - to lean on; to rely on

paro (1) to prepare (semper paratus)

pareo, parere, parui - to obey + dative

pario, parere, peperi, partus - to produce, bear

pendeo, pendere, pependi, pensus - pay, weigh, to hang

polliceor, polliceri, pollicitus sum - to promise, offer

probo (1) to approve, demonstrate

repello, repellere, repuli, repulsus - drive back, repulse

tollo, tollere, subtuli, sublatus - raise; destroy

vereor, vereri, veritus sum - to be afraid, fear

ulciscor, ulcisci, ultus sum - to avenge, take vengeance

aditus, -us (m) approach, entrance

auctoritas, auctoritatis (f) influence, clout

casus, -us (m) misfortune, change

centurio, centurionis (m) centurion

circuitus, -us (m) circumference, circuit

contumelia, -ae (f) insult, outrage; violence

fames, famis (f) hunger

fama, -ae (f) story, rumor; reputation

familiaris, -e- of the family; close friend

fides, fidei (f) faith, honor, trust

fletus, -us (m) weeping

hiems, hiemis (f) winter

hiberna, -orum (n. Pl.) winter-camp

inopia, -ae (f) poverty, want, need

ignis, -is (m) fire

meritum, -i (n) service, favour

mos, moris (m) custom, habit, manner (mos maiorum, mores)

negotium, -ii (n) business, a task

officium, -ii (n) duty

opus, operis (n) work, toil; defenses

opera, -ae (f) effort, attention

ops, opis (f) power, resources, influence

praesidium, -ii (n) guard, protection

pietas, pietatis (f) devotion/loyalty to family, state/nations and gods

ratio, rationis (f) an accounting, reasoning

scala, -ae (f) ladder, stairs

sententia, -ae (f) opinion, purpose

sermo, sermonis (m) conversation, speech

studium, -ii (n) eagerness, zeal

stipendium, -i (n) pay; military service

voluntas, voluntatis (f) wish, will, choice

vulgus, -i (n) mass, mob

aeger, aegra, aegrum - sick, weak

alacer, alacris, alacere - eager, spirited

amplus, a, um - ample, full, spacious

confertus, a, um - crowded together

humilis, -e- on the ground; humble, low

incommodus, a, um - unfortunate, disastrous

incolumis, -e- uninjured, safe

indignus, a, um + ablative= unworthy, undeserving

idoneus, a, um - suitable, appropriate +dative case

levis, -e - light (opposite of gravis, -e)

par, paris - equal, similar + dative

repentinus, a, um - sudden, unexpected

saucius, a, -um - wounded

adeo, (adv.) to such an extent

apud + acc. = in the presence of, with, among

casū (adv.) by chance

confestim (adv.) immediately

eiusmodi - of this kind, of such a kind, so

intra + acc. = within

inter + acc= between, among

procul (adv.) far off, at a distance

quotiens - as often as

quoniam - since

nondum (adv.) not yet

paene (adv.) almost

rursus (adv.) again, backward

sive…sive or seu…seu - whether, or

tametsi - even if, although

unde - whence, from where

vero (postpositive) in fact

"Them's Fighten' Words" or Words of a Mostly Martial Nature.

Be able to decline: eadem magna acies haec fortis manus illa tota pars

attingo, attingere,attigī, attāctus to touch against; touch, reach, arrive at, border (ad + tango)

animadverto,animadvertere, animadverti, animadversum -turn mind to, notice

conspicio, conspire, conspexi, conspectus -to look at attentively, to get sight of, to descry, perceive

contendo, contendere, contendi, contentus - to stretch completely; stretch, strain,

conicio, conicere, conieci, coniectus - to hurl, to throw

consuesco, consuescere, consuevi, consuetus - to be accustomed (to)+ infinitive

cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognotus - to learn, come to know (in the perfect = know).

contendo, contendere, contendi, contentus - to struggle, vie, fight

dedo, dedere, dedidi, deditus - to give up, surrender

desum, deesse, defui - to be lacking; to fail +dative case

expugno (1) to take by storm, capture

existimo (1) to judge, consider, think

efficio, efficere, effeci, effectus - to do, effect(often used impersonally + ut + subjunctive = “it happened that.....”

gero, gerere, gessi, gestum - to wage, conduct, accomplish; wear

incolo, incolere - to dwell, to inhabit

incito (1) to drive forward, incite

munio (4) to fortify

nasciscor, nascisci, nactus sum - to find, to obtain

nascor, nasci, natus sum - to be born

potior, potiri, potitus sum + ABL or GEN. = to gain possession of

probo (1) approve, commend

praecedo, praecedere, praecessi - to go before,excel

procedo, procedere, processi, processus - to advance, go forward

proficiscor, proficisci, profectus sum - to set out

subvenio, subvenire, subveni, subventum - to come to the aid of + dative

acies, aciei (f) battle line; battle; edge, line of sight

agmen, agminis (n) marching line (novissimum agmen= rear of theline)

auxilium, -ii (n) help

castra, -arum (n) camp

cohors, cohortis (f) cohort

cornu, -us (n) wing (of an army); horn

copiae, -arum (f) troops

equites, equitum (m. pl.) cavalry

equitatus, -us (m) cavalry

eruptio, eruptionis (f) a breaking out

exercitus, -us (m) army

fossa, -ae (f) ditch

frumentum, -i (n) grain, (in plural = crops)

gladius, -ii (m) sword

impedimentum, -i (n) impediment, obstacle, (in plural = baggage train)

impetus, -us (m) attack

latus, lateris (n) side; flank

legatus, -i (m) envoy; lieutenant general

legio, legionis (f) legion (3600-6000 milites)

manus, -us (f) hand; band or group of soldiers

miles, militis (m) soldier

munitio, munitionis (f) fortification

murus, -i (m) wall

obsidio, obsidionis (f) siege, blockade

pars, partis (f) part, side;direction

passus, -us (m) step, pace

pilum, i (n) javelin

praesidium, -ii (n) guard

proelium, -ii (n) battle

profectio, profectionis (f) departure, setting out

salus, salutis (f) safety, salvation

scutum, -i (n) shield

subsidium, -ii (n) help, reinforcement, support

telum, -i (n) weapon; spear

turris, turris(turrim and turrium) (f) tower

usus, -us (m) use (of used as a dative of purpose by Caesar)

vigilia, -ae (f) watch (military)

vallum, -i (n) rampart; wall

virtus, virtutis (f) courage, valour

expeditus, a, um- lightly armed

fortis, forte (adj.) brave, strong

paratus, a, um - prepared

reliquus, a, um - remaining, the rest

tardus, a, um - slow

apud (prep. + acc.) near, among, in the presence of

ne...quidem = not even (surrounds the word that it emphasizes)

qua (relative) where

fere (adv.) nearly, almost

praeterea (adv.) besides, moreover

procul (adv.) at a distance, far away

prope (adv.) near

propterea quod - because, on account of the fact that

Phrases or Idioms:

Res est testimonio- “the matter is for (the purpose of) evidence”

capere consilium - to adopt plan

de summis rebus - “concerning the most serious circumstances”

in ipso negotio:'in the midst of action'.

ad hunc modum- in this manner

in perpetuum- forever

se receperunt- they retreated

longe lateque- far and wide

eodem die- on the same day

subductis navibus- ships drawn up

magna manu- with a large group of men

summo loco- in the highest position

milia passuum - a Roman mile

numero hostium habēre - to consider as an enemy

Acheron, Acherontis (m) River of Hades

Lacus Avernus - Lake near Cumae and entrance to Underworlld

Charon, Charontis (m) Charon, ferryman of souls across the river Styx

Cocytus, -i (m) river in the underworld

Dis, Ditis (m) Pluto, Hades, god of underworld

Hecate - Infernal version of Diana

Proserpina, -ae (f) Peresphone

Iris, Iridis (f) Iris, messenger of Juno and goddess of the rainbow

abluo, abluere, ablui, ablutus - to wash (off)

adnitor, adniti, adnisus sum - to lean on; struggle

aestuo (1) boil, seethe, rage

arceo, acrere, arcui - to keep off, defend

bacchor (1) to rave, rush wildly (what are Bacchantes/Maenades?)

cado, cadere, cecidi, casus - to fall

concutio, concutere, concussi, concussus - to shake, shatter

consuesco, consuescere, consuevi, consuetus - to be accustomed (to)+ infinitive

cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognotus - to learn, come to know (in the perfect = know).

deficio, deficere, defeci, defectus - fail, faint

defungor, defungi, defunctus, a, um - perform, finish +ablative case

desum, deesse, defui - to be lacking; to fail +dative case

efficio, efficere, effeci, effectus - to do, effect(often used impersonally + ut + subjunctive = “it happened that.....”

fremo, fremere, fremui- roar, grown

iaceo, iacere, iacui - to lie

iuvo, iuvare, iuvi, iutus - to please, to help (often used impersonally)

haereo, haerēre, haesī, haesum - to cling

haurio, haurire, hausī, haustus - to drain, drink in

glomero (1) to gather, collect

miseror, miserari, miseratus sum - to pity

nasciscor, nascisci, nactus sum - to find, to obtain

oro (1) to plead, to beg, to beseech, to pray

queror, querī, questus sum - to complain

recedo, recedere, recessī, recussus - to back, retreat

seco, secare, secui, sectus - to cut, cleave, slice

solvo, solvere, solvi, solutus - to free, loosen, set free

spargo, spargere, sparsi, sparsus - to scatter, sprinkled

sperno, spernere, sprevi, spretus - scorn, reject

spumo (1) to foam

vereor, verērī, veritus sum - to fear, be afraid of

verro, verrere, verri, versus - to sweep (over)

aether, aetheris (m) upper air; heaven

amnis, -is (m) river

amictus, -ūs (m) cloak, robe

calor, caloris (m) heat, warmth

canities, canitiei (f) whiteness

casus, -ūs (m) misfortune disater

casu (adv.) by change, accidentally

comes, comitis (m/f) companion

consilium, -ii (n) plan, counsel

copia, -ae (f) abundance; troops, forces; supplies

culmen, culminis (n) top, summit

crinis, crinis (m) hair

folium, -i (n) leaf

gemitus, -ūs (m) roar, groan, lament

harena, -ae (f) sand, beach

halitus, -ūs (m) breath

heros, herois (m) hero, great warrior

lacus, -ūs (m) lake

mentum, -i (n) chin

mens, mentis (f) mind; thought, intension

mos, moris (m) custom, manner

mors, mortis (f) death

omen, ominis (n) omen

opera, -ae (f) effort, attention, service, hard work

ops, opis (f) power, support ; in plural - resources; wealth, influence

opus, operis (n) work, task; fortification

palus, paludis (f) swamp, marsh

ramus, -i (m) brach of a tree

remus, -i (m) oar of ship

rota, -ae (f) wheel

ripa, -ae (f) bank

rogus, -i (m)

senectus, senectutis (f) old age

sinus, -ūs (m) fold, boson, bay, hollow, indentation

sors, sortis (f) lot, chance

spatium, -ii (n) space, interval of time

torus, -i (m) couch, bed

usus, -us (m) use, need, purpose (usuiis a common dative of purpose)

tumultus, -ūs (m) tumult, uprising, clamor

vadum, -i (n) shallow, shoal

angustus, a, um - narrow

amplus, a, um - ample, full, spacious

crudus, a, um - raw, fresh; bloody

expeditus, a, um - fast, unimpeded

exsanguis, -e bloodless, lifeless, pale

examinis, -e - breathless,

extremus, a, um - final, last, extreme

impertius, a, um - unskilled + gen. case

incolumis, -e- unharmed, safe

incultus, a, um - wild, unkempt

iniquus, a, um - unfair, unjust, hostile

inhumatus, a, um - unburied

inops, inopis (adj.) needy, destitute, bereft of

lividus, a, um - blue, dark

sordidus, a, um - dirty, squalid

trepidus, a, um - agitated, trembling

aliter (adv.) otherwise

non aliter quam - not otherwise than, just as (introduces a simile)

demum (adv.) at length, finally

enim - for, indeed, truly

iuxta + acc. case = next to , close to

inde(adv.) thence, thereupon, afterward

quia - because

totiens - so often

totidem - the same number

ūnā (adv.) together, at the same time

Be able to decline: haec speciesor totum foedus

Elissa, ae (f) Phoenician name of Dido

Thyias, Thyiadis (f) cultic following of Dionysus

ambio, ambire, ambivi, ambitus - to go around in search of support

excio, excire, excivi, excitus - to - to excite, rouse, stir up

foveo, fovere, fovi - to keep warm, cherish

fraudo (1) to deprive of, to cheat out of + ablative case

fundo (1) to lay a foundation; to found

fulgeo, fulgere, fulsi - to flash; to shine bright

mando (1) to entrust; to order

meditor meditari, meditatus sum - to ponder; plan; contemplate

misereor, misereri + genitive case = to pity

piget, pigere, piguit (impersonal verb + acc. + inf.) it displeases, its causes regret

propero (1) to hurry, to hasten

potior, potiri, potitus sum (+ abl. or gen.) to take possession of

rumpo, rumpere, rupi, ruptus - to break, to burst

saevio, saevire - to rage, to be cruel

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - to take

surgo, surgere, surrexi, surrectus - to rise

umeo, umere - to be wet

aequor, aequoris (n) sea

arx, arcis (f) citadel

artus, -us (m) limbs

aspectus, -us (m) sight, vision

coniugium, i (n) marriage

conubium -i (n) marriage

dolus, -i (m) trick, deception

foedus, foederis (n) treaty, contract

funus, funeris (n) funeral, death

laena, -ae (f) cloak

metus, -us (m) fear

monitus, -us (m) warning, admonition

orgia, -orum (n. pl.) secret rites, mysteries

otium, -ii (n) leisure, time of leisure

planta, -ae (f) sole of foot; foot

sidus, sideris (n) star

sors, sortis (f) lot, fortune, fate, chance

species, speciei (f) appearance

spons, spontis (f) will, volition

aeger, aegra, aegrum - sick, weak; wounded

alienus, a, um - foreign, alien

foedus, a, um - foul, disgusting

furtivus, a, um - secret, furtive

hibernus, a, um - winter, of the winter

incolumis, -e - uninjured, safe

inops, inopis (adj.) lacking in wealth; devoid of + genitive case

mirabilis, mirabile - wonderous (mirabile dictu)

mollis, -esoft; kind

pernix, pernicis (adj.) swift

perfidus, a, um - treacherous, false; deceitful

potior, potius (comp. adj.) more powerful; stronger

tutus, a, um - safe

undosus, a, um - abounding in waves, stormy

uxorius, a, um - under a wife’s control

velox, velocis (adj.) swift

continuo (adv.) immediately, at once

nusquam (adv.) no where

numquam (adv.) never

ocius (adv.) quickly, speedily

omnino (adv.)

pro re (legal idiom) - for my own case

tandem (adv.) at last, finally

ultro (adv.) beyond, from the other side, in reply

a(d)spicio, -spicere, -spexi, -spectus - to see, behold, look at

amplector, amplectī, amplexus sum - to embrace (amplexus- mating position of frogs)

attollo, attollere - raise up, lift

aveho, avehere, avexi, avectus - to carry away, convey

careo, carere, carui + abl. - to lack, be free from

dignor, dignari, dignatus sum + abl. - to deem worthy

everto, evertere, eversi, eversus - to over turn; destroy

for, farī, fatus sum - to speak

excutio, excutere, excussī, excussus - to shake off

fugleo, fulgere - to shine, flash

haurio, haurire, hausi, haustum - to drain, to drink in

haereo, haereo, haesi, haesum - to cling, to stick, to get stuck; be embarrassed

incedo, incedere, incessi, incessus - to go forth, stride, walk majestically

incumbo, incumbere, incubui + dative - to lean upon, hand over

includo, inculdere, inclusi, inclusus - to enclose, confine

insto, instare - to press on, urge + dative

iuvo, iuvare, iuvi - to please, to help (often used impersonally)

lambo (1) to lick

lateo, latere, latui - to hide, to lurk (latent)

ligo (1) to bind, fasten

lego, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to choose

macto (1) slaughter

occido, occidere, occidi, occasus - to fall, to perish

occulto (1) to hide (occult)

pario, parere, peperi, partus - to give birth, gain, acquire

sinuo (1) fold, curve, twist (insinuate)

statuo, statuere, statui, statutus - establish, set up

sisto, sistere, steti, status - stand, stop, stay

sterno, sternere, stravi, stratus - to lay low; spread; strew

suscito (1) to stir, to arouse

supero (1) to surmount, overcome

tegō, tegere, tēxī, tectus - to cover

tueor, tueri, tutus sum - to watch over; protect

ulcisor, ulicisci, ultus sum - to avenge (Temple of Mars Ultor)

aether, eris (m) upper air; heavens

ala, -ae (f) wing

amnis, -is (m) river

anguis, -is (m) snake

artus, artūs (m) limb, joint, body

arx, arcis (f) citadel

caterva, -ae (f) crowd, band

collum, -i (n) neck

collis, collis (m) hill

conubium, -ii (n) marriage

culpa, -ae (f) fault, offense, blame

culmen, culminis (n) peak, summit, top; acme

custos, custodis (m) guard

dolus, -i (m) trick, fraud, deciet

dolor, doloris (m) grief; angry; pain

ensis, -is (m) sword; knife

error, erroris (m) error; trick, deceit; a wandering

facies, faciei (m) face; appearance

fictum, -i (n) falsehood

insania, -ae (f) madness, frenzy

gemitus, -ūs (m) groan, wailing

latus, lateris (n) side, flank

letum, -i (n) death

lignum, -i (n) wood

nepos, nepotis (m) descendent

pulvis, pulveris (m) dust

quisquis, quidquid (indef. pronoun) whoever, whatever

robur, roburis (m) oak; strength

rota, -ae (f) wheel

sermo, sermonis (m) speech, conversation

solum, -i (n) ground, soil, earth

sors, sortis (f) lot, chance; fate, destiny

uterus, -i (m) womb, belly

uterque, utraque, utrumque - each, both

vitta, -ae (f) garland, fillet

conscius, a, um - aware, privy to

defessus, a, um - weary; exhausted

extremus, a, um- final, last, furthest

incolumis, -e - safe, unharmed, uninjured

invisus, a, um - hated; hateful

laevus, a, um - left; stupid; ill-omened

fetus, a, um - teeming with, pregnant with

foedus, a, um - foul, disgusting, filthy

furtivus, a, um - stolen, secret

pernix, pernicis (adj.) swift, active

secundus, a, um - following, favorable

tenax, tenacis (adj.) holding

tutus, a, um - safe

umidus, a, um - damp, dewy, wet

enim (adv.) for, indeed, truly

denique (adv.) finally, at last

nusquam (adv.) nowhere; never

pariter (adv.) equally, alike

passim (adv.) everywhere, here and there

procul (adv.) at or from a distance

totidem - the same number; so many

totiens - so often

Be able to decline: haec visor illud mareor lītus ipsum

Acestes, -ae (m) king of Sicily

Aeolus, -i (m) Aeolus, King of Wind ( from Homer'sOdyssey)

Dardanus, a, um = Trojan, of Dardanus, legendary king of Troy

Latona, -ae (f) Leto, mother of Apollo and Diana

Ilium, Ilii (n) Illium = Trot as in Iliad =story of Iliumor Ilioupersis,destruction of Troy

Iulus, -i (m) son of Aeneas AKA Ascanius, hence the Gens Iulii.

Poeni, -orum (m. pl.) Carthaginians, Phoenicians

Teurcri- orum (m. p.) descendant of Teucer (Who the hell is Teucer?)

Tyrius, a, um - Tyrian or of Tyre, a Phoenician city in the Levant

Hesperia, -ae (f) land in the west

Saturnius, a, um - of Saturn

adsurgo, adsurgere, adsurrexi, adsurrectus - to rise up, to stand up

aspicio, aspicere, aspexi, aspectus - to look at, behold, look upon

desisto, desistere, destiti - to leave off, desist

cieo, ciere, civi, citus - rouse, stir

defigo, defigere, defixi, defixus - fix, to fasten

haereo, haereo, haesi, haesum - to cling, to stick, to get stuck; be embarrassed

incedo, incedere, incessi, incessus - to go forth, stride, walk majestically

insto, instare - to press on + dative

mollio (4) to soften

parco, parcere, peperci +dative = to spare, pardon

populo (1) to devastate,

stupeo, stupere, stupui - to stand fixed, to be dazed

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - take, use up, consume (alsoadsumo)

surgo, surgere, surrexi, surrectus - to rise up, to stand up

solvo, solvere, solvi, solutus - to loosen, set free; bring an end to

veho, vehere, vexi, vectus - to convey, carry

veto, vetere, vetui - to forbid, prevent

voluto (1) to roll over and over and over and over and over....

aequor, aequoris (n) sea, level surface of the sea

aes, aeris (n) bronze

anima, -ae (f)soul, spirit, ghost [breath , wind, air]. Transf., [the breath of life, vital principle, soul]; 'animam edere', [to give up the ghost]; poet., [life-blood]; meton., [a living being]; sometimes = animus, [rational soul].

animus, -i (m)[the spiritual or rational principle of life in man]. More specifically: (1) [the seat of feeling ,the heart]; 'animi causa', [for pleasure]; loc. (or genit.) 'animi', [at heart]. (2) [character,disposition]; as a trait of character (esp. in plur.) [courage, spirit, vivacity]; also [pride, arrogance]. (3) [the seat of the will, intention]: 'habeo in animo', [I am resolved]. (4) [the seat of thought, intellect, mind, memory, consciousness].

antrum, -i (n)

arx, arcis (f) citadel

aurum, - (n) gold

auris, -is (f) ears

aura, -ae (f) breeze

caterva, -ae (f) crowd

caecus, a, um - blind

clarus, a, um - clear, bright; distinguished, noble

cura, ae (f) care, worry, anxiety

discrimen, discriminis (n) a dividing line; critical moment; crisis; hardship

foedus, foederis (n) treaty, contract

foris, -is (f) door, gate

harena, -ae (f) sand

inceptum, , -i (n) beginning, undertaking

iuvenis, -is (m) youth

ius, iuris (n) law

mare, maris (n) sea

moles, molis (f) a mass; undertaking, burden

mos, moris (m) custom

metus, -us (m) fear

noxa, -ae (f) crime

officium, -ii (n) duty, kindness, favour

opus, operis (n) work, labour, task

ops, ops (f) power, influence; resources, wealth

ora, -ae (f) shore

praeda, -ae (f) booty

ramus, i (m) branch

remus, -i (m) oar

sors, sortis (f) lot, chance; fate

turbo, turbinis (m) storm; whirlwind

vis, vis (f) force; in plural = strength

acutus, a, um - sharp

aetherius, a, um- of the upper air, ethereal

ater, atra, atrum - black

avidus, a, um - eager

barbarus, a, um - foreign, strange, uncivilized

crudelis, -e- cruel, bloody

cunctus, a, um - all

infelix, infelicis - unhappy, ill-fated, barren

laetus, a, um - happy

memor, memoris (adj.) mindful, remembering + genitive

potens, potentis (adj.) powerful, ruling over + genitive

subnixus, a, um + abl. resting on

tutus, a, um - safe

at, ast (adversative conj.)

adhuc (adv.) to his point, till now

coram (adv.) openly, publicly, face to face

equidem - truly, indeed, certainly

pariter (adv.) equally

praeterea (adv.) here after, besides

quippe (adv.) of course, certain (tone?)

seu...seu - whether...or

Be able to decline: haec visor illud mareor litus ipsum

Anchises, -ae (m) acc. =Anchisen - Trojan Prince and father of Aeneas

Argi, -orum (m. pl.) Argos, city in Greece where Juno is worshipped

Argivus, a, um - Argive, Greek

Danaus, a, um - Danaan, Greek

Ganymēdēs, -is (m) Trojan boy and son of Laomedon, king of Troy

Lāvīnius, a, um - Lavinian, of Lavinium

Parcae, -arum (f) Fates

Teucrus, a, um - Teucrian, Trojan (Teucer was a king of Troy)

Troia, -ae (f) city of Troy or Ilium

Tyrius, a, um - Tyrian, of Tyre, a Phoenician city on the coast of the Levant

Saturnius, a, um - of Saturn

Trōs, Trōis (m) Trojan

Words of Special Significance:

moles, molis (f) a mass, weight, burden

pietas, pietatis (f)

pius, a, um

condo, condere, condidi, conditus

volvo, volvere, volui, volutus - to move in a curved course; to roll; to unroll; to undergo

vatēs, vatis (m) bard, prophet, singer; poet

accendo, accendere, accendi, accensus - to inflame; enrage

adeo, adire, adiī, aditus - to approach, encounter

ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus - to burn; be eager

arceo, arcere, arcui - keep off, defend, restrain

cano, canere, cecinī, cantus - to sing

cerno, cernere, crevi, cretus - to discern, perceive

doleo, dolere, dolui - to suffer, grieve, resent

eripio, eripere, eripui, ereptus - to snatch away

for, fari, fatus sum - to speak

foveo, fovere, fovi - to cherish, fondle

fundo, fundere, fudi, fusus - to pour

furo, furere, furui - to rage, rave, be frantic

iacto (1) to toss, buffet

impello, impellere, impulī, impulsus - to strike against, drive, force

incedo, incedere, incessi, incessus - to stride; go forth; walk

labor, labi, lapsus sum - to slipe, to slide

laedo, laedere, laesi, laesus - to hurt, strike, offend

metuo, metuere, metui - to fear

patior, pati, passus sum - to suffer, endure; allow

ruo, ruere, rui - fall; rush; sink

sino, sinere, sivi - to permit, allow

tendo, tendere, tetendi, tentus - to stretch

voluto (1) to turn over, roll

volvo, volvere, volui, volutus - to move in a curved course; to roll; to unroll; to undergo

aequor, aequoris (n) sea

altum, -i (n) the deep, the sea

arx, arcis (f) citadel, fort; height

ara, ae (f) altar

arvum, -i (n) field

aura, -ae (f) breeze, air

aurum, -i (n) gold

causa, -ae (f) cause, reason

casus, -ūs (m) misfortune, chance

cura, -ae (f) care, anxiety,

currus, -ūs (m) chariot

donum, -i (n) gift

fatum, -i (n) fate

fors, fortis (f) chance, fortune

fluctus, us (m) wave, tide, flood, sea

furia, -ae (f) rage, madness

genus, generis (n) race; kind, origin,

gens, gentis (f) clan, race, nation

litus, litoris (n) shore

moenia, -ium (n) walls

numen, numinis (n) divine authority, divinity

ora, -ae (f) shore

pontus, -i (m) sea

portus, -us (m) port

porta, -ae (f) gate

progenies, progeniei (f) offspring

pelagus, -i (n) sea

pectus, pectoris (n) chest; heart; soul

relinquiae, ārum (fe. pl.) the leavings, remnants

sidus, sideris (n) star

socius, -i (m) ally, comrade, follower

sanguis, -inis (m) blood

somnus, -i (m) sleep, slumber; dream

turbo, turbinis (m) whirlwind

vetus, veteris (adj.) old

asper, aspera, asperum - rough, harsh

ater, atra, atrum - dark, black, gloomy

caelestis, -e(adj.) of the sky, heavenly

carus, a, um - dear + dative case

dives, divitis (adj.) rich

fessus, a, um - tired, weary

immanis, -e- huge, monstrous, enormous

insignis, -e- marked, distinguished

invīsus, a, um - hated

infelix, infelicis (adj.) unfortunate, unhappy, accursed

inferus, a, um - low, below, underneath

memor, memoris (adj.) mindful + genitive case

saevus, a, um - cruel, savage

enim - for, indeed, in truth

insuper (adv.) above, besides

lātē (adv.) widely, far and wide

longe (adv.) far off

necdum (adv.) not yet

olim (adv.) once upon a time, once

praeterea (adv.) besides, hereafter

qua (adv.) where, in anyway

quippe - truly, indeed surely

una (adv.) together, at the same time

unde - from which, whenc

1) Be able to decline: carus vaults; magnum munus; hoc os; nullum numen

2) Expect verb game on: for, fari, fatus sum andcolo, colere, colui, cultus

fertur = he, she, it is said

abdo, abdere, abdidi, abditus - to put away, hide, remove, secrete

cano, canere, cecini, cantus - to sing

colo, colere, colui, cultus - to worship; to cultivate

comprehendo, comprehendere, comprehendi - seize, grasp, arrest

condo, condere, condidi, conditus - to found, establish

conor, conari, conatus sum - to try

confido, confidere, confisus sum (semi-transvestite) +dative = to trust

conspicor (1) to catch sight of; perceive

contego, contegere, contexi, contextum - cover over

deficio, deficere, defeci, defectum - to give out, to fail

dimico (1) to brandish weapon; contend

excido, excidere - to fall from, perish

fertur = he, she, it is said

for, fari, fatus sum - to speak

foveo, fovere -to keep warm; cherish, support

iacto (1) to toss, buffet

immolo (1) to sacrifice , immolate

impello, impellere, impuli, impulsus - to drive, force, strike

laedo, laedere, laesi, laesum - to hurt, injure; offend

metuo, metuere, metui - fear, dread

patior, pati, passus sum - to suffer, endure;to allow+ acc. + inf.

rego, regere, rexi, rectum - to rule, lead, direct

servo, servare - to keep, preserve

sino, sinere, sivi, situs - permit, allow

succurro, succurrere - to aid, run to support + dative

versor (1) to be engaged in

volvo, volvere, volvi, volutus - to wind, roll, twist

alter, altera, alterum (-ius paradigm) the other, another, one…the other

altum, -i (n) the deep; the sea

aequor, aequoris (n) a flat level surface;the sea

arx, arcis (f) citadel

causa, -ae (f) cause, reason; case

casus, -us (m) chance; misfortune, disaster

conspectus, -us (m) look, sight, view

currus, -us (m) chariot

excidium, -ii (n) destruction, overthrow

fama, -ae (f) rumour, story, report

furiae, -arum (f) madness, rage

furtum, -i (n) theft, robbery

gens,gentis (f) race, clan

iniuria, -ae (f) injury, wrong

litus, litoris (n) shore

moenia, -ium (n. pl.) walls

moles, molis (f) mass, burden, difficulty

morbus, -i (m) disease, sickness, illness

munus, muneris (n) service, duty; gift

noxia, -ae (f) fault, offence, crime

numen, numinis (n) divine spirit, divine power

opinio, opinionis (f) opinion, thought, belief

opus, operis (n) task, work; fortification; need

ops, opis (f) help, resources, power, wealth

ora, orae (f) shore

os, oris (n) mouth; face

os, ossis (n) bone

pilum, -i (n) spear

progenies, progeniei (f) offspring

quisquam, quaequam, quidquam - anybody, anyone, anything

sanguis, sanguinis (m) blood; family, race

sal, salis (n) salt

verutum, -i (n) javalin

vultus, -us (m) face; expression

asper, aspera, asperum - harsh, rough, fierce

caelestis, caeleste - celestial, heavenly

carus, a, um - dear +dative case

confertus, a, um - crowded together, densely packed

dives, divitis (adj.) wealthy, rich

immanis, immane- immense, enormous

immitis, immite - fierce, cruel

insignis, insigne- distinguished, remarkable

invisus,a, um - hated, hateful, odious

memor, menoris (adj.) mindful, remembering + genitive case

saevus, a, um - cruel

tot (indecl. adj.) so many

turpis, turpe - shameful, ugly, vile

uter, utra, utrum? Which of two (-ius paradigm)

vetus, veteris (adj.) old

vivus, a, um - living, alive

admodum (adv.) completely, just about

causā + preceding genitive = "for the sake of"

clam (adv.) in secret

circum + acc. = around

dum (subord. conj.) + indicative = while

dum (subord. conj.) + subjunctive = until

enim - for, indeed, in truth

magis (adv.) more, rather

necdum - not yet

nondum - not yet

ob + acc. - on account of

palam (adv.) openly, publicly

paulatim (adv.) little by little

qua (adv.) where, in any way

quoque (adv.) also

fertur = he, she, it is said

adipiscor, adipisci, adeptus sum - to obtain, get

adhaereo, adhaerere, adhaesi - to cling to, to stick to

comperio, comperire, comperi, compertus - to find out; to discover

concedo, concedere - to withdraw

consisto, consistere, constiti - to stand (still), to stop

concido, concidere, concidi, concisum - to cut down

constipo (1) to crowd together in, to stuff

confido, confidere, confisus sum (semi-deponent) - to believe, to trust, to rely on

conficio, -ere - to exhaust; to finish

insto, instare, institi - press on, take position

irrumpo, irrumpere, irrupi, irruptus, a, um - burst in

ligo (1) to tie, bind (ligament)

moror, morari, moratus sum - to delay, linger

morior, mori, mortuus sum - to die

nascor, nasci, natus sum - to be born

nitor, niti, nixus or nisus sum - to rely on (+abl. case); to struggle to + infinitive

noceo, nocere, nocui, nocitus - to harm + dative case [often used impersonally in Caesar:ipsi Titurio nihil nocitum iri= "that no harm will be done to Titurius himself"]

procedo, procedere, processi, processum - to proceed, to advance

prodo, prodere, prodidi, proditus - to bring fourth; betray

progredior, progredi, progessus sum - to advance

subvenio, subvenire, subveni - come up to; aid, relieve

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - to take; spend

tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatus - raise; destroy

soleo, solere, solitus sum - to be accustomed to + infinitive

versor (1) to be engaged, move about; to live

vereor, vereri, veritus sum - fear, be afraid

adventus, -us (m) arrival (advent)

aedes, aedis (f) building; temple

aetas, aetatis (f) age, time of life

auctoritas, auctoritatis (f) influence, clout

beneficium, -ii (n) kindness, favour, benefit

caedes, caedis (f) murder, slaughter, killing

casus, -us (m) chance; misfortune, disaster

certamen, certaminis (n) contest, conflict

cor, cordis (n) heart

epistula, -ae (f) letter, missive

facinus, facinoris (n) deed; bad deed; crime

fama, -ae (f) rumour, story, hearsay

fas (n. indeclinable) right or just according to divine law (opposite is nefas).

gratia, -ae (f) influence, favour; thanks

iniuria, -ae (f) wrong, injury, injustice

ius, iuris (n) justice, law, right

liberi, - orum (m) children

moles, molis (f) a mass, a weight

morbus, -i (m) disease, sickness, illness

poena, -ae (f) punishment

nutus, -us (m) a nod

numen, numinis (f) divine spirit; divinity

obsidio, obsidionis (f) siege, blockade

ratio, rationis (f)- a reckoning , account, consideration, calculation; 'rationem ducere', [to compute]; [any transaction, affair, business;a reason, motive, ground; a plan, scheme, system; reasonableness, method, order; a theory, doctrine, science; the reasoning faculty].

scutum, -i (n) shield

turris, -is (f) tower (Italian torre)

vagina, -ae (f) sheath, scabbard

vallum, -i (n) rampart, wall

acer, acris, acre - sharp; fierce; bitter; eager (acrid)

asper, aspera, asperum - rough, harsh, violent

confertus, a, um - crowded together

creber, crebra, crebrum - crowded, frequent

cupidus, a, um - desirous, eager

immanis, -e enormous, immense

inferus, a, um - below, lower

impeditus, a, um- hindered, impeded

impius, a, um - impious, unholy

incolumis -e [uninjured , safe and sound]

quidam, quaedam, quoddam (indefinite adj.) a certain

quinam, quaenam, quodnam - which, that

quispiam, quaepiam, quodpiam - who?, what?

repentinus, a, um - sudden

turpis, -e- ugly, shameful, disgusting (turpitude)

uter, utra, utrum - which of two?

vivus, a, um - living, alive

admodum (adv.) completely, just about

aut...aut (conjunctions) either...or

bis (adv.) twice

deinceps (adv.) one after another, successively

intus (adv.) within

intra (prep.+ acc.) within, among

confestim (adv.) immediately

ne...quidem = not even

neve - or not, and not, nor

nondum (adv.) not yet

pridie (adv.) on the day before, on the previous day.

quidem - infact, indeed

quoque - and also, also

rursus (adv.) again, back

sicut - just as, so as

extra (prep. + acc.) outside, beyond, outside of

Phrases or Idioms:

Res est testimonio- “the matter is for (the purpose of) evidence”

de summis rebus - “concerning the most serious circumstances”

in ipso negotio:'in the midst of action'.

ad hunc modum- in this manner

in perpetuum- forever

se receperunt- they retreated

longe lateque- far and wide

eodem die- on the same day

subductis navibus- ships drawn up

magna manu- with a large group of men

summo loco- in the highest position

Be able to decline: hoc opus &eadem fides

adipiscor, adipisci, adeptus sum - get, obtain, reach

ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus - to burn; to be eager

cado, cadere, cecidi, casus - to fall

cedo, cedere, cessi, cessus - to move, to withdraw

cingo, cingere, cinxi, cinctus - to surround

coepi, coepisse, coeptum - to begin (defective verb)

concito (1) to incite, stir, impel

confiteor, confiteri, confessus sum - to admit, to reveal

confido, confidere, confisus sum - to trust, believe

conspicio, conspicere, conspexi, conspectus - to see, to behold

consulo, consulere, consului, consultus - to consult, to consider

compleo, complere, complevi, completus - to fill

debeo, debere, debui, debitus - to owe; ought

despero (1) to give up, to have not hope

disco, discere, didici - to learn, get to know

excito (1) excite, inspire; raise

excedo, excedere, excessi, excessus - to go out

impetro (1) to obtain, accomplish

interpono, interponere, interposui - to introduce

labor, labi, lapsus sum - to slipe, glide

minuo, minuere, minui - to diminish

munio, (4) to fortify

nanciscor, nancisci, nactus sum - to obtain, meet

nascor, nasci, natus sum - to be born

nosco, noscere, novi, notus - to recognize; know, learn

nego (1) to deny, to say ...not

nitor, niti, nisus sum - to lean on; to rely on

paro (1) to prepare

pareo, parere, parui - to obey + dative

pario, parere, peperi, partus - to produce, bear

pendeo, pendere, pependi, pensus - pay, weigh, to hang

polliceor, polliceri, pollicitus sum - to promise, offer

probo (1) to approve, demonstrate

repello, repellere, repuli, repulsus - drive back, repulse

tollo, tollere, subtuli, sublatus - raise; destroy

vereor, vereri, veritus sum - to be afraid, fear

ulciscor, ulcisci, ultus sum - to avenge, take vengeance

aditus, -us (m) approach, entrance

auctoritas, auctoritatis (f) influence, clout

centurio, centurionis (m) centurion

circuitus, -us (m) circumference, circuit

contumelia, -ae (f) insult, outrage; violence

fames, famis (f) hunger

fama, -ae (f) story, rumor; reputation

familiaris, -e- of the family; close friend

fides, fidei (f) faith, honor, trust

fletus, -us (m) weeping

hiems, hiemis (f) winter

hiberna, -orum (n. Pl.) winter-camp

inopia, -ae (f) poverty, want, need

ignis, -is (m) fire

meritum, -i (n) service, favour

mos, moris (m) custom, habit, manner

negotium, -ii (n) business, a task

opus, operis (n) work, toil; defenses

opera, -ae (f) effort, attention

ops, opis (f) power, resources, influence

praesidium, -ii (n) guard, protection

pietas, pietatis (f) devotion/loyalty to family, state/nations and gods

ratio, rationis (f) an accounting, reasoning

scala, -ae (f) ladder, stairs

sententia, -ae (f) opinion, purpose

sermo, sermonis (m) conversation, speech

studium, -ii (n) eagerness, zeal

stipendium, -i (n) pay; military service

voluntas, voluntatis (f) wish, will, choice

vulgus, -i (n) mass, mob

aeger, aegra, aegrum - sick, weak

alacer, alacris, alacere - eager, spirited

amplus, a, um - ample, full, spacious

confertus, a, um - crowded together

humilis, -e- on the ground; humble, low

incommodus, a, um - unfortunate, disastrous

incolumis, -e- uninjured, safe

indignus, a, um + ablative= unworthy, undeserving

idoneus, a, um - suitable, appropriate +dative case

levis, -e - light

par, paris - equal, similar

repentinus, a, um - sudden, unexpected

saucius, a, -um - wounded

adeo, (av.) to such an extent

apud + acc. = in the presence of, with, among

confestim (adv.) immediately

eiusmodi - of this kind, of such a kind, so

intra + acc. = within

inter + acc= between, among

procul (adv.) far off, at a distance

quotiens - as often as

quoniam - since

nondum (adv.) not yet

paene (adv.) almost

rursus (adv.) again, backward

sive…sive or seu…seu - whether, or

tametsi - even if, although

unde - whence, from where

vero - in truth, in fact

Phrases or Idioms:

Res est testimonio- “the matter is for (the purpose of) evidence”

de summis rebus - “concerning the most serious circumstances”

in ipso negotio:'in the midst of action'.

ad hunc modum- in this manner

in perpetuum- forever

se receperunt- they retreated

longe lateque- far and wide

eodem die- on the same day

subductis navibus- ship drawn up

magna manu- with a large group of men

summo loco- in the highest position

"Them's Fighten' Words" or Words of a Mostly Martial Nature.

conicio, conicere, conieci, coniectus (con + iacio)- to hurl, to throw

consuesco, consuescere, consuevi, consuetus - to be accustomed (to)+ infinitive

cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognotus - to learn, come to know (in the perfect = know).

contendo, contendere, contendi, contentus - to struggle, vie, fight

dedo, dedere, dedidi, deditus - to give up, surrender

desum, deesse, defui - to be lacking; to fail +dative case

expugno (1) to take by storm, capture

existimo (1) to judge, consider, think

efficio, efficere, effeci, effectus - to do, effect(often used impersonally + ut + subjunctive = “it happened that.....”

gero, gerere, gessi, gestum - to wage, conduct, accomplish; wear

incolo, incolere - to dwell

incito (1) to drive forward, incite

munio (4) to fortify

nasciscor, nascisci, nactus sum - to find, to obtain

probo (1) approve, commend

praecedo, praecedere, praecessi - to go before,excel

procedo, procedere, processi, processus - to advance, go forward

proficiscor, proficisci, profectus sum - to set out

subvenio, subvenire, subveni, subventum - to come to the aid of + dative

subsequor, subsequi, secutus sum - to follow after, to follow closely;to succeed

succurro, succurrere- to run to aid + dative

acies, aciei (f) battle line

agmen, agminis (n) marching line (novissimum agmen= rear of theline)

auxilium, -ii (n) help

castra, -arum (n) camp

cohors, cohortis (f) cohort

cornu, -us (n) wing (of an army); horn

copiae, -arum (f) troops

equites, equitum (m. pl.) cavalry

equitatus, -us (m) cavalry

eruptio, eruptionis (f) a breaking out

exercitus, -us (m) army

fossa, -ae (f) ditch

frumentum, -i (n) grain, (in plural = crops)

gladius, -ii (m) sword

impedimentum, -i (n) impediment, obstacle, (in plural = baggage train)

impetus, -us (m) attack

latus, lateris (n) side; flank

legatus, -i (m) envoy; lieutenant

legio, legionis (f) legion

manus, -us (f) hand; band or group of soldiers

miles, militis (m) soldier

munitio, munitionis (f) fortification

murus, -i (m) wall

obsidio, obsidionis (f) siege, blockade

pars, partis (f) part, side;direction

passus, -us (m) step, pace

pilum, i (n) javelin

praesidium, -ii (n) guard

proelium, -ii (n) battle

profectio, profectionis (f) departure, setting out

salus, salutis (f) safety, salvation

scutum, -i (n) shield

subsidium, -ii (n) help, reinforcement, support

telum, -i (n) weapon; spear

turris, turris, turrium (f) tower

usus, -us (m) use (of used as a dative of purpose by Caesar)

vigilia, -ae (f) watch (military)

vallum, -i (n) rampart; wall

virtus, virtutis (f) courage, valour

expeditus, a, um- lightly armed

fortis, forte (adj.) brave, strong

paratus, a, um - prepared

reliquus, a, um - remaining, the rest

tardus, a, um - slow

ne...quidem = not even (surrounds the word that it emphasizes)

qua (relative) where

fere (adv.) nearly, almost

plerumque (adv.) generally, usually; often

praeterea (adv.) besides, moreover

procul (adv.) at a distance, far away

prope (adv.) near

propterea quod - because, on account of the fact that

Acheron, Acherontis (m) River of Hades

Lacus Avernus - Lake near Cumae and entrance to Underworlld

Charon, Charontis (m) Charon, ferryman of souls across the river Styx

Cocytus, -i (m) river in the underworld

Dis, Ditis (m) Pluto, Hades, god of underworld

Hecate - Infernal version of Diana

Proserpina, -ae (f) Peresphone

Iris, Iridis (f) Iris, messenger of Juno and goddess of the rainbow

abluo, abluere, ablui, ablutus - to wash (off)

adnitor, adniti, adnisus sum - to lean on; struggle

aestuo (1) boil, seethe, rage

arceo, acrere, arcui - to keep off, defend

bacchor (1) to rave, rush wildly (what are Bacchantes/Maenades?)

cado, cadere, cecidi, casus - to fall

concutio, concutere, concussi, concussus - to shake, shatter

consuesco, consuescere, consuevi, consuetus - to be accustomed (to)+ infinitive

cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognotus - to learn, come to know (in the perfect = know).

deficio, deficere, defeci, defectus - fail, faint

defungor, defungi, defunctus, a, um - perform, finish +ablative case

desum, deesse, defui - to be lacking; to fail +dative case

efficio, efficere, effeci, effectus - to do, effect(often used impersonally + ut + subjunctive = “it happened that.....”

fremo, fremere, fremui- roar, grown

iaceo, iacere, iacui - to lie

iuvo, iuvare, iuvi, iutus - to please, to help (often used impersonally)

haereo, haerēre, haesī, haesum - to cling

haurio, haurire, hausī, haustus - to drain, drink in

glomero (1) to gather, collect

miseror, miserari, miseratus sum - to pity

nasciscor, nascisci, nactus sum - to find, to obtain

oro (1) to plead, to beg, to beseech, to pray

queror, querī, questus sum - to complain

recedo, recedere, recessī, recussus - to back, retreat

seco, secare, secui, sectus - to cut, cleave, slice

solvo, solvere, solvi, solutus - to free, loosen, set free

spargo, spargere, sparsi, sparsus - to scatter, sprinkled

sperno, spernere, sprevi, spretus - scorn, reject

spumo (1) to foam

vereor, verērī, veritus sum - to fear, be afraid of

verro, verrere, verri, versus - to sweep (over)

aether, aetheris (m) upper air; heaven

amnis, -is (m) river

amictus, -ūs (m) cloak, robe

calor, caloris (m) heat, warmth

canities, canitiei (f) whiteness

casus, -ūs (m) misfortune disater

casu (adv.) by change, accidentally

comes, comitis (m/f) companion

consilium, -ii (n) plan, counsel

copia, -ae (f) abundance; troops, forces; supplies

culmen, culminis (n) top, summit

crinis, crinis (m) hair

folium, -i (n) leaf

gemitus, -ūs (m) roar, groan, lament

harena, -ae (f) sand, beach

halitus, -ūs (m) breath

heros, herois (m) hero, great warrior

lacus, -ūs (m) lake

mentum, -i (n) chin

mens, mentis (f) mind; thought, intension

mos, moris (m) custom, manner

mors, mortis (f) death

omen, ominis (n) omen

opera, -ae (f) effort, attention, service, hard work

ops, opis (f) power, support ; in plural - resources; wealth, influence

opus, operis (n) work, task; fortification

palus, paludis (f) swamp, marsh

ramus, -i (m) brach of a tree

remus, -i (m) oar of ship

rota, -ae (f) wheel

ripa, -ae (f) bank

rogus, -i (m)

senectus, senectutis (f) old age

sinus, -ūs (m) fold, boson, bay, hollow, indentation

sors, sortis (f) lot, chance

spatium, -ii (n) space, interval of time

torus, -i (m) couch, bed

usus, -us (m) use, need, purpose (usuiis a common dative of purpose)

tumultus, -ūs (m) tumult, uprising, clamor

vadum, -i (n) shallow, shoal

angustus, a, um - narrow

amplus, a, um - ample, full, spacious

crudus, a, um - raw, fresh; bloody

expeditus, a, um - fast, unimpeded

exsanguis, -e bloodless, lifeless, pale

examinis, -e - breathless,

extremus, a, um - final, last, extreme

impertius, a, um - unskilled + gen. case

incolumis, -e- unharmed, safe

incultus, a, um - wild, unkempt

iniquus, a, um - unfair, unjust, hostile

inhumatus, a, um - unburied

inops, inopis (adj.) needy, destitute, bereft of

lividus, a, um - blue, dark

sordidus, a, um - dirty, squalid

trepidus, a, um - agitated, trembling

aliter (adv.) otherwise

non aliter quam - not otherwise than, just as (introduces a simile)

demum (adv.) at length, finally

enim - for, indeed, truly

iuxta + acc. case = next to , close to

inde(adv.) thence, thereupon, afterward

quia - because

totiens - so often

totidem - the same number

ūnā (adv.) together, at the same time

Be able to decline: haec species or totum foedus

Elissa, ae (f) Phoenician name of Dido

Thyias, Thyiadis (f) cultic following of Dionysus

ambio, ambire, ambivi, ambitus - to go around in search of support

excio, excire, excivi, excitus - to - to excite, rouse, stir up

foveo, fovere, fovi - to keep warm, cherish

fraudo (1) to deprive of, to cheat out of + ablative case

fundo (1) to lay a foundation; to found

fulgeo, fulgere, fulsi - to flash; to shine bright

mando (1) to entrust; to order

meditor meditari, meditatus sum - to ponder; plan; contemplate

misereor, misereri + genitive case = to pity

piget, pigere, piguit (impersonal verb + acc. + inf.) it displeases, its causes regret

propero (1) to hurry, to hasten

potior, potiri, potitus sum (+ abl. or gen.) to take possession of

rumpo, rumpere, rupi, ruptus - to break, to burst

saevio, saevire - to rage, to be cruel

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - to take

surgo, surgere, surrexi, surrectus - to rise

umeo, umere - to be wet

aequor, aequoris (n) sea

arx, arcis (f) citadel

artus, -us (m) limbs

aspectus, -us (m) sight, vision

coniugium, i (n) marriage

conubium -i (n) marriage

dolus, -i (m) trick, deception

foedus, foederis (n) treaty, contract

funus, funeris (n) funeral, death

laena, -ae (f) cloak

metus, -us (m) fear

monitus, -us (m) warning, admonition

orgia, -orum (n. pl.) secret rites, mysteries

otium, -ii (n) leisure, time of leisure

planta, -ae (f) sole of foot; foot

sidus, sideris (n) star

sors, sortis (f) lot, fortune, fate, chance

species, speciei (f) appearance

spons, spontis (f) will, volition

aeger, aegra, aegrum - sick, weak; wounded

alienus, a, um - foreign, alien

foedus, a, um - foul, disgusting

furtivus, a, um - secret, furtive

hibernus, a, um - winter, of the winter

incolumis, -e - uninjured, safe

inops, inopis (adj.) lacking in wealth; devoid of + genitive case

mirabilis, mirabile - wonderous (mirabile dictu)

mollis, -esoft; kind

pernix, pernicis (adj.) swift

perfidus, a, um - treacherous, false; deceitful

potior, potius (comp. adj.) more powerful; stronger

tutus, a, um - safe

undosus, a, um - abounding in waves, stormy

uxorius, a, um - under a wife’s control

velox, velocis (adj.) swift

continuo (adv.) immediately, at once

nusquam (adv.) no where

numquam (adv.) never

ocius (adv.) quickly, speedily

omnino (adv.)

pro re (legal idiom) - for my own case

tandem (adv.) at last, finally

ultro (adv.) beyond, from the other side, in reply

a(d)spicio, -spicere, -spexi, -spectus - to see, behold, look at

amplector, amplectī, amplexus sum - to embrace (amplexus - mating position of frogs)

attollo, attollere - raise up, lift

aveho, avehere, avexi, avectus - to carry away, convey

careo, carere, carui + abl. - to lack, be free from

dignor, dignari, dignatus sum + abl. - to deem worthy

everto, evertere, eversi, eversus - to over turn; destroy

for, farī, fatus sum - to speak

excutio, excutere, excussī, excussus - to shake off

fugleo, fulgere - to shine, flash

haurio, haurire, hausi, haustum - to drain, to drink in

haereo, haereo, haesi, haesum - to cling, to stick, to get stuck; be embarrassed

incedo, incedere, incessi, incessus - to go forth, stride, walk majestically

incumbo, incumbere, incubui + dative - to lean upon, hand over

includo, inculdere, inclusi, inclusus - to enclose, confine

insto, instare - to press on, urge + dative

iuvo, iuvare, iuvi - to please, to help (often used impersonally)

lambo (1) to lick

lateo, latere, latui - to hide, to lurk (latent)

ligo (1) to bind, fasten

lego, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to choose

macto (1) slaughter

occido, occidere, occidi, occasus - to fall, to perish

occulto (1) to hide (occult)

pario, parere, peperi, partus - to give birth, gain, acquire

sinuo (1) fold, curve, twist (insinuate)

statuo, statuere, statui, statutus - establish, set up

sisto, sistere, steti, status - stand, stop, stay

sterno, sternere, stravi, stratus - to lay low; spread; strew

suscito (1) to stir, to arouse

supero (1) to surmount, overcome

tegō, tegere, tēxī, tectus - to cover

tueor, tueri, tutus sum - to watch over; protect

ulcisor, ulicisci, ultus sum - to avenge (Temple of Mars Ultor)

aether, eris (m) upper air; heavens

ala, -ae (f) wings

amnis, -is (m) river

anguis, -is (m) snake

artus, artūs (m) limb, joint, body

arx, arcis (f) citadel

caterva, -ae (f) crowd, band

collum, -i (n) neck

collis, collis (m) hill

conubium, -ii (n) marriage

culpa, -ae (f) fault, offense, blame

culmen, culminis (n) peak, summit, top; acme

custos, custodis (m) guard

dolus, -i (m) trick, fraud, deciet

dolor, doloris (m) grief; angry; pain

ensis, -is (m) sword; knife

error, erroris (m) error; trick, deceit; a wandering

facies, faciei (m) face; appearance

fictum, -i (n) falsehood

insania, -ae (f) madness, frenzy

gemitus, -ūs (m) groan, wailing

latus, lateris (n) side, flank

letum, -i (n) death

lignum, -i (n) wood

nepos, nepotis (m) descendent

pulvis, pulveris (m) dust

quisquis, quidquid (indef. pronoun) whoever, whatever

robur, roburis (m) oak; strength

rota, -ae (f) wheel

sermo, sermonis (m) speech, conversation

solum, -i (n) ground, soil, earth

sors, sortis (f) lot, chance; fate, destiny

uterus, -i (m) womb, belly

uterque, utraque, utrumque - each, both

vitta, -ae (f) garland, fillet

conscius, a, um - aware, privy to

defessus, a, um - weary; exhausted

extremus, a, um- final, last, furthest

incolumis, -e - safe, unharmed, uninjured

invisus, a, um - hated; hateful

laevus, a, um - left; stupid; ill-omened

fetus, a, um - teeming with, pregnant with

foedus, a, um - foul, disgusting, filthy

furtivus, a, um - stolen, secret

pernix, pernicis (adj.) swift, active

secundus, a, um - following, favorable

tenax, tenacis (adj.) holding

tutus, a, um - safe

umidus, a, um - damp, dewy, wet

enim (adv.) for, indeed, truly

denique (adv.) finally, at last

nusquam (adv.) nowhere; never

pariter (adv.) equally, alike

passim (adv.) everywhere

procul (adv.) at or from a distance

totidem - the same number; so many

totiens - so often

Vocabulary Lists AP — Latin for Rabbits (7)

Vocabulary List for Aeneid, Middle of Book One

Be able to decline: haec visor illud mareor lītus ipsum

Acestes, -ae (m) king of Sicily

Aeolus, -i (m) Aeolus, King of Wind ( from Homer'sOdyssey)

Dardanus, a, um = Trojan, of Dardanus, legendary king of Troy

Latona, -ae (f) Leto, mother of Apollo and Diana

Ilium, Ilii (n) Illium = Trot as in Iliad =story of Iliumor Ilioupersis,destruction of Troy

Iulus, -i (m) son of Aeneas AKA Ascanius, hence the Gens Iulii.

Poeni, -orum (m. pl.) Carthaginians, Phoenicians

Teurcri- orum (m. p.) descendant of Teucer (Who the hell is Teucer?)

Tyrius, a, um - Tyrian or of Tyre, a Phoenician city in the Levant

Hesperia, -ae (f) land in the west

Saturnius, a, um - of Saturn

adsurgo, adsurgere, adsurrexi, adsurrectus - to rise up, to stand up

aspicio, aspicere, aspexi, aspectus - to look at, behold, look upon

desisto, desistere, destiti - to leave off, desist

cieo, ciere, civi, citus - rouse, stir

defigo, defigere, defixi, defixus - fix, to fasten

haereo, haereo, haesi, haesum - to cling, to stick, to get stuck; be embarrassed

incedo, incedere, incessi, incessus - to go forth, stride, walk majestically

insto, instare - to press on + dative

mollio (4) to soften

parco, parcere, peperci + dative = to spare, pardon

populo (1) to devastate,

stupeo, stupere, stupui - to stand fixed, to be dazed

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - take, use up, consume (alsoadsumo)

surgo, surgere, surrexi, surrectus - to rise up, to stand up

solvo, solvere, solvi, solutus - to loosen, set free; bring an end to

veho, vehere, vexi, vectus - to convey, carry

veto, vetere, vetui - to forbid, prevent

voluto (1) to roll over and over and over and over and over....

aequor, aequoris (n) sea, level surface of the sea

aes, aeris (n) bronze

anima, -ae (f)soul, spirit, ghost [breath , wind, air]. Transf., [the breath of life, vital principle, soul]; 'animam edere', [to give up the ghost]; poet., [life-blood]; meton., [a living being]; sometimes = animus, [rational soul].

animus, -i (m)[the spiritual or rational principle of life in man]. More specifically: (1) [the seat of feeling ,the heart]; 'animi causa', [for pleasure]; loc. (or genit.) 'animi', [at heart]. (2) [character,disposition]; as a trait of character (esp. in plur.) [courage, spirit, vivacity]; also [pride, arrogance]. (3) [the seat of the will, intention]: 'habeo in animo', [I am resolved]. (4) [the seat of thought, intellect, mind, memory, consciousness].

antrum, -i (n)

arx, arcis (f) citadel

aurum, - (n) gold

auris, -is (f) ears

aura, -ae (f) breeze

caterva, -ae (f) crowd

caecus, a, um - blind

clarus, a, um - clear, bright; distinguished, noble

cura, ae (f) care, worry, anxiety

discrimen, discriminis (n) a dividing line; critical moment; crisis; hardship

foedus, foederis (n) treaty, contract

foris, -is (f) door, gate

harena, -ae (f) sand

inceptum, , -i (n) beginning, undertaking

iuvenis, -is (m) youth

ius, iuris (n) law

mare, maris (n) sea

moles, molis (f) a mass; undertaking, burden

mos, moris (m) custom

metus, -us (m) fear

noxa, -ae (f) crime

officium, -ii (n) duty, kindness, favour

opus, operis (n) work, labour, task

ops, ops (f) power, influence; resources, wealth

ora, -ae (f) shore

praeda, -ae (f) booty

ramus, i (m) branch

remus, -i (m) oar

sors, sortis (f) lot, chance; fate

turbo, turbinis (m) storm; whirlwind

vis, vis (f) force; in plural = strength

acutus, a, um - sharp

aetherius, a, um- of the upper air, ethereal

ater, atra, atrum - black

avidus, a, um - eager

barbarus, a, um - foreign, strange, uncivilized

crudelis, -e- cruel, bloody

cunctus, a, um - all

infelix, infelicis - unhappy, ill-fated, barren

laetus, a, um - happy

memor, memoris (adj.) mindful, remembering + genitive

potens, potentis (adj.) powerful, ruling over + genitive

subnixus, a, um + abl. resting on

tutus, a, um - safe

at, ast (adversative conj.)

adhuc (adv.) to his point, till now

coram (adv.) openly, publicly, face to face

equidem - truly, indeed, certainly

pariter (adv.) equally

praeterea (adv.) here after, besides

quippe (adv.) of course, certain (tone?)

seu...seu - whether...or

First list for the Aeneid

Be able to decline: haec visor illud mareor litus ipsum

Anchises, -ae (m) acc. =Anchisen - Trojan Prince and father of Aeneas

Argi, -orum (m. pl.) Argos, city in Greece where Juno is worshipped

Argivus, a, um - Argive, Greek

Danaus, a, um - Danaan, Greek

Ganymēdēs, -is (m) Trojan boy and son of Laomedon, king of Troy

Lāvīnius, a, um - Lavinian, of Lavinium

Parcae, -arum (f) Fates

Teucrus, a, um - Teucrian, Trojan (Teucer was a king of Troy)

Troia, -ae (f) city of Troy or Ilium

Tyrius, a, um - Tyrian, of Tyre, a Phoenician city on the coast of the Levant

Saturnius, a, um - of Saturn

Trōs, Trōis (m) Trojan

Words of Special Significance:

moles, molis (f) a mass, weight, burden

pietas, pietatis (f)

pius, a, um

condo, condere, condidi, conditus

volvo, volvere, volui, volutus - to move in a curved course; to roll; to unroll; to undergo

vatēs, vatis (m) bard, prophet, singer; poet

accendo, accendere, accendi, accensus - to inflame; enrage

adeo, adire, adiī, aditus - to approach, encounter

ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus - to burn; be eager

arceo, arcere, arcui - keep off, defend, restrain

cano, canere, cecinī, cantus - to sing

cerno, cernere, crevi, cretus - to discern, perceive

doleo, dolere, dolui - to suffer, grieve, resent

eripio, eripere, eripui, ereptus - to snatch away

for, fari, fatus sum - to speak

foveo, fovere, fovi - to cherish, fondle

fundo, fundere, fudi, fusus - to pour

furo, furere, furui - to rage, rave, be frantic

iacto (1) to toss, buffet

impello, impellere, impulī, impulsus - to strike against, drive, force

incedo, incedere, incessi, incessus - to stride; go forth; walk

labor, labi, lapsus sum - to slipe, to slide

laedo, laedere, laesi, laesus - to hurt, strike, offend

metuo, metuere, metui - to fear

patior, pati, passus sum - to suffer, endure; allow

ruo, ruere, rui - fall; rush; sink

sino, sinere, sivi - to permit, allow

tendo, tendere, tetendi, tentus - to stretch

voluto (1) to turn over, roll

volvo, volvere, volui, volutus - to move in a curved course; to roll; to unroll; to undergo

aequor, aequoris (n) sea

altum, -i (n) the deep, the sea

arx, arcis (f) citadel, fort; height

ara, ae (f) altar

arvum, -i (n) field

aura, -ae (f) breeze, air

aurum, -i (n) gold

causa, -ae (f) cause, reason

casus, -ūs (m) misfortune, chance

cura, -ae (f) care, anxiety,

currus, -ūs (m) chariot

donum, -i (n) gift

fatum, -i (n) fate

fors, fortis (f) chance, fortune

fluctus, us (m) wave, tide, flood, sea

furia, -ae (f) rage, madness

genus, generis (n) race; kind, origin,

gens, gentis (f) clan, race, nation

litus, litoris (n) shore

moenia, -ium (n) walls

numen, numinis (n) divine authority, divinity

ora, -ae (f) shore

pontus, -i (m) sea

portus, -us (m) port

porta, -ae (f) gate

progenies, progeniei (f) offspring

pelagus, -i (n) sea

pectus, pectoris (n) chest; heart; soul

relinquiae, ārum (fe. pl.) the leavings, remnants

sidus, sideris (n) star

socius, -i (m) ally, comrade, follower

sanguis, -inis (m) blood

somnus, -i (m) sleep, slumber; dream

turbo, turbinis (m) whirlwind

vetus, veteris (adj.) old

asper, aspera, asperum - rough, harsh

ater, atra, atrum - dark, black, gloomy

caelestis, -e(adj.) of the sky, heavenly

carus, a, um - dear + dative case

dives, divitis (adj.) rich

fessus, a, um - tired, weary

immanis, -e- huge, monstrous, enormous

insignis, -e- marked, distinguished

invīsus, a, um - hated

infelix, infelicis (adj.) unfortunate, unhappy, accursed

inferus, a, um - low, below, underneath

memor, memoris (adj.) mindful + genitive case

saevus, a, um - cruel, savage

enim - for, indeed, in truth

insuper (adv.) above, besides

lātē (adv.) widely, far and wide

longe (adv.) far off

necdum (adv.) not yet

olim (adv.) once upon a time, once

praeterea (adv.) besides, hereafter

qua (adv.) where, in anyway

quippe - truly, indeed surely

una (adv.) together, at the same time

unde - from which, whence

Final Caesar Vocabulary List - Book 6

1) Be able to decline: carus vultus; insigne munus; hoc os; nullum numen

2) Expect verb game on: for, fari, fatus sum andcolo, colere, colui, cultus

fertur = he, she, it is said

abdo, abdere, abdidi, abditus - to put away, hide, remove, secrete

cano, canere, cecini, cantus - to sing

colo, colere, colui, cultus - to worship; to cultivate

comprehendo, comprehendere, comprehendi - seize, grasp, arrest

condo, condere, condidi, conditus - to found, establish

confido, confidere, confisus sum (semi-transvestite) +dative = to trust

conspicor (1) to catch sight of; perceive

contego, contegere, contexi, contextum - cover over

deficio, deficere, defeci, defectum - to give out, to fail

dimico (1) to brandish weapon; contend

excido, excidere - to fall from, perish

fertur = he, she, it is said

for, fari, fatus sum - to speak

foveo, fovere -to keep warm; cherish, support

iacto (1) to toss, buffet

immolo (1) to sacrifice , immolate

impello, impellere, impuli, impulsus - to drive, force, strike

laedo, laedere, laesi, laesum - to hurt, injure; offend

metuo, metuere, metui - fear, dread

patior, pati, passus sum - to suffer, endure;to allow+ acc. + inf.

rego, regere, rexi, rectum - to rule, lead, direct

servo, servare - to keep, preserve

sino, sinere, sivi, situs - permit, allow

versor (1) to be engaged in

volvo, volvere, volvi, volutus - to wind, roll, twist

altum, -i (n) the deep; the sea

aequor, aequoris (n) a flat level surface;the sea

arx, arcis (f) citadel

causa, -ae (f) cause, reason; case

casus, -us (m) chance; misfortune, disaster

conspectus, -us (m) look, sight, view

currus, -us (m) chariot

excidium, -ii (n) destruction, overthrow

fama, -ae (f) rumour, story, report

furiae, -arum (f) madness, rage

furtum, i (n) theft, robbery

gens,gentil (f) race, clan

iniuria, -ae (f) injury, wrong

litus, litoris (n) shore

moenia, -ium (n. pl.) walls

moles, molis (f) mass, burden, difficulty

morbus, -i (m) disease, sickness, illness

munus, muneris (n) service, duty; gift

noxia, -ae (f) fault, offence, crime

numen, numinis (n) divine spirit, divine power

opinio, opinionis (f) opinion, thought, belief

opus, operis (n) task, work; fortification; need

ops, opis (f) help, resources, power, wealth

ora, orae (f) shore

os, oris (n) mouth; face

os, ossis (n) bone

progenies, progeniei (f) offspring

quisquam, quaequam, quidquam - anybody, anyone, anything

sanguis, sanguinis (m) blood; family, race

sal, salis (n) salt

vultus, -us (m) face; expression

asper, aspera, asperum - harsh, rough, fierce

caelestis, -e- celestial, heavenly

carus, a, um - dear +dative case

dives, divitis (adj.) wealthy, rich

immanis, -e- immense, enormous

immitis, -e - fierce, cruel

insignis, -e- distinguished, remarkable

invisus,a, um - hated, hateful, odious

memor, menoris (adj.) mindful, remembering + genitive case

saevus, a, um - cruel

tot (indecl. adj.) so many

turpis, -e- shameful, ugly, vile

vetus, veteris (adj.) old

vivus, a, um - living, alive

admodum (adv.) completely, just about

causā + preceding genitive = "for the sake of"

clam (adv.) in secret

circum + acc. = around

dum (subord. conj.) + indicative = while

dum (subord. conj.) + subjunctive = until

enim - for, indeed, in truth

magis (adv.) more, rather

necdum - not yet

nondum- not yet

ob + acc. - on account of

palam (adv.) openly, publicly

qua (adv.) where, in any way

quoque (adv.) also

fertur = he, she, it is said

List for Quiz on Monday, November 24.

adipiscor, adipisci, adeptus sum - to obtain, get

adhaereo, adhaerere, adhaesi - to cling to, to stick to

audeo, audere, ausus sum - to dare

cano, canere, cecini, cantus - to sing

comperio, comperire, comperi, compertus - to find out; to discover

concedo, concedere - to withdraw

consisto, consistere, constiti - to stand (still), to stop

concido, concidere, concidi, concisum - to cut down

constipo (1) to crowd together in, to stuff

confido, confidere, confisus sum (semi-deponent) - to believe, to trust, to rely on

conficio, -ere - to exhaust; to finish

insto, instare, institi - press on, take position

irrumpo, irrumpere, irrupi, irruptus, a, um - burst in

ligo (1) to tie, bind (ligament)

moror, morari, moratus sum - to delay, linger

morior, mori, mortuus sum - to die

nascor, nasci, natus sum - to be born

nitor, niti, nixus or nisus sum - to rely on (+abl. case); to struggle to + infinitive

noceo, nocere, nocui, nocitus - to harm + dative case [often used impersonally in Caesar:ipsi Titurio nihil nocitum iri= "that no harm will be done to Titurius himself"]

procedo, procedere, processi, processum - to proceed, to advance

prodo, prodere, prodidi, proditus - to bring fourth; betray

progredior, progredi, progessus sum - to advance

subvenio, subvenire, subveni - come up to; aid, relieve

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - to take; spend

tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatus - raise; destroy

soleo, solere, solitus sum - to be accustomed to + infinitive

versor (1) to be engaged, move about; to live

vereor, vereri, veritus sum - fear, be afraid

adventus, -us (m) arrival (advent)

aedes, aedis (f) building; temple

aetas, aetatis (f) age, time of life

auctoritas, auctoritatis (f) influence, clout

aer, aeris (m) air (useful for rebuilding ships)

aes, aeris (n) bronze

balteus, -i (m) belt, baldric, girdle

beneficium, -ii (n) kindness, favour, benefit

caedes, caedis (f) murder, slaughter, killing

casus, -us (m) chance; misfortune, disaster

certamen, certaminis (n) contest, conflict

cor, cordis (n) heart

epistula, -ae (f) letter, missive

facinus, facinoris (n) deed; bad deed; crime

fama, -ae (f) rumour, story, hearsay

fas (n. indeclinable) right or just according to divine law (opposite is nefas).

gratia, -ae (f) influence, favour; thanks

iniuria, -ae (f) wrong, injury, injustice

ius, iuris (n) justice, law, right

liberi, - orum (m) children

moles, molis (f) a mass, a weight

morbus, -i (m) disease, sickness, illness

poena, -ae (f) punishment

nutus, -us (m) a nod

numen, numinis (f) divine spirit; divinity

obsidio, obsidionis (f) siege, blockade

ratio, rationis (f)- a reckoning , account, consideration, calculation; 'rationem ducere', [to compute]; [any transaction, affair, business;a reason, motive, ground; a plan, scheme, system; reasonableness, method, order; a theory, doctrine, science; the reasoning faculty].

scutum, -i (n) shield

turris, -is (f) tower (Italian torre)

vagina, -ae (f) sheath, scabbard

vallum, -i (n) rampart, wall

acer, acris, acre - sharp; fierce; bitter; eager (acrid)

asper, aspera, asperum - rough, harsh, violent

confertus, a, um - crowded together

creber, crebra, crebrum - crowded, frequent

cupidus, a, um - desirous, eager

immanis, -e enormous, immense

inferus, a, um - below, lower

impeditus, a, um- hindered, impeded

impius, a, um - impious, unholy

incolumis -e [uninjured , safe and sound]

quidam, quaedam, quoddam (indefinite adj.) a certain

quinam, quaenam, quodnam - which, that

quispiam, quaepiam, quodpiam - who?, what?

repentinus, a, um - sudden

turpis, -e- ugly, shameful, disgusting (turpitude)

uter, utra, utrum - each of two, one of two

vivus, a, um - living, alive

admodum (adv.) completely, just about

aut...aut (conjunctions) either...or

bis (adv.) twice

deinceps (adv.) one after another, successively

intus (adv.) within

intra (prep.+ acc.) within, among

confestim (adv.) immediately

ne...quidem = not even

neve - or not, and not, nor

nondum (adv.) not yet

pridie (adv.) on the day before, on the previous day.

quidem - infact, indeed

quoque - and also, also

rursus (adv.) again, back

sicut - just as, so as

extra (prep. + acc.) outside, beyond, outside of

adipiscor, adipisci, adeptus sum - to obtain, get

adhaereo, adhaerere, adhaesi - to cling to, to stick to

comperio, comperire, comperi, compertus - to find out; to discover

concedo, concedere - to withdraw

consisto, consistere, constiti - to stand (still), to stop

concido, concidere, concidi, concisum - to cut down

constipo (1) to crowd together in, to stuff

confido, confidere, confisus sum (semi-deponent) - to believe, to trust, to rely on

conficio, -ere - to exhaust; to finish

insto, instare, institi - press on, take position

irrumpo, irrumpere, irrupi, irruptus, a, um - burst in

ligo (1) to tie, bind (ligament)

moror, morari, moratus sum - to delay, linger

morior, mori, mortuus sum - to die

nascor, nasci, natus sum - to be born

nitor, niti, nixus or nisus sum - to rely on (+abl. case); to struggle to + infinitive

noceo, nocere, nocui, nocitus - to harm + dative case [often used impersonally in Caesar:ipsi Titurio nihil nocitum iri= "that no harm will be done to Titurius himself"]

procedo, procedere, processi, processum - to proceed, to advance

prodo, prodere, prodidi, proditus - to bring fourth; betray

progredior, progredi, progessus sum - to advance

subvenio, subvenire, subveni - come up to; aid, relieve

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - to take; spend

tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatus - raise; destroy

soleo, solere, solitus sum - to be accustomed to + infinitive

versor (1) to be engaged, move about; to live

vereor, vereri, veritus sum - fear, be afraid

adventus, -us (m) arrival (advent)

aedes, aedis (f) building; temple

aetas, aetatis (f) age, time of life

auctoritas, auctoritatis (f) influence, clout

beneficium, -ii (n) kindness, favour, benefit

caedes, caedis (f) murder, slaughter, killing

casus, -us (m) chance; misfortune, disaster

certamen, certaminis (n) contest, conflict

cor, cordis (n) heart

epistula, -ae (f) letter, missive

facinus, facinoris (n) deed; bad deed; crime

fama, -ae (f) rumour, story, hearsay

fas (n. indeclinable) right or just according to divine law (opposite is nefas).

gratia, -ae (f) influence, favour; thanks

iniuria, -ae (f) wrong, injury, injustice

ius, iuris (n) justice, law, right

liberi, - orum (m) children

moles, molis (f) a mass, a weight

morbus, -i (m) disease, sickness, illness

poena, -ae (f) punishment

nutus, -us (m) a nod

numen, numinis (f) divine spirit; divinity

obsidio, obsidionis (f) siege, blockade

ratio, rationis (f)- a reckoning , account, consideration, calculation; 'rationem ducere', [to compute]; [any transaction, affair, business;a reason, motive, ground; a plan, scheme, system; reasonableness, method, order; a theory, doctrine, science; the reasoning faculty].

scutum, -i (n) shield

turris, -is (f) tower (Italian torre)

vagina, -ae (f) sheath, scabbard

vallum, -i (n) rampart, wall

acer, acris, acre - sharp; fierce; bitter; eager (acrid)

asper, aspera, asperum - rough, harsh, violent

confertus, a, um - crowded together

creber, crebra, crebrum - crowded, frequent

cupidus, a, um - desirous, eager

immanis, -e enormous, immense

inferus, a, um - below, lower

impeditus, a, um- hindered, impeded

impius, a, um - impious, unholy

incolumis -e [uninjured , safe and sound]

quidam, quaedam, quoddam (indefinite adj.) a certain

quinam, quaenam, quodnam - which, that

quispiam, quaepiam, quodpiam - who?, what?

repentinus, a, um - sudden

turpis, -e- ugly, shameful, disgusting (turpitude)

uter, utra, utrum - which of two?

vivus, a, um - living, alive

admodum (adv.) completely, just about

aut...aut (conjunctions) either...or

bis (adv.) twice

deinceps (adv.) one after another, successively

intus (adv.) within

intra (prep.+ acc.) within, among

confestim (adv.) immediately

ne...quidem = not even

neve - or not, and not, nor

nondum (adv.) not yet

pridie (adv.) on the day before, on the previous day.

quidem - infact, indeed

quoque - and also, also

rursus (adv.) again, back

sicut - just as, so as

extra (prep. + acc.) outside, beyond, outside of

Phrases or Idioms:

Res est testimonio- “the matter is for (the purpose of) evidence”

de summis rebus - “concerning the most serious circumstances”

in ipso negotio:'in the midst of action'.

ad hunc modum- in this manner

in perpetuum- forever

se receperunt- they retreated

longe lateque- far and wide

eodem die- on the same day

subductis navibus- ship drawn up

magna manu- with a large group of men

summo loco- in the highest position

Be able to decline: hoc opus &eadem fides

adipiscor, adipisci, adeptus sum - get, obtain, reach

ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus - to burn; to be eager

cado, cadere, cecidi, casus - to fall

cedo, cedere, cessi, cessus - to move, to withdraw

cingo, cingere, cinxi, cinctus - to surround

coepi, coepisse, coeptum - to begin (defective verb)

concito (1) to incite, stir, impel

confiteor, confiteri, confessus sum - to admit, to reveal

confido, confidere, confisus sum - to trust, believe

conspicio, conspicere, conspexi, conspectus - to see, to behold

consulo, consulere, consului, consultus - to consult, to consider

compleo, complere, complevi, completus - to fill

debeo, debere, debui, debitus - to owe; ought

despero (1) to give up, to have not hope

disco, discere, didici - to learn, get to know

excito (1) excite, inspire; raise

excedo, excedere, excessi, excessus - to go out

impetro (1) to obtain, accomplish

interpono, interponere, interposui - to introduce

labor, labi, lapsus sum - to slipe, glide

minuo, minuere, minui - to diminish

munio, (4) to fortify

nanciscor, nancisci, nactus sum - to obtain, meet

nascor, nasci, natus sum - to be born

nosco, noscere, novi, notus - to recognize; know, learn

nego (1) to deny, to say ...not

nitor, niti, nisus sum - to lean on; to rely on

paro (1) to prepare

pareo, parere, parui - to obey + dative

pario, parere, peperi, partus - to produce, bear

pendeo, pendere, pependi, pensus - pay, weigh, to hang

polliceor, polliceri, pollicitus sum - to promise, offer

probo (1) to approve, demonstrate

repello, repellere, repuli, repulsus - drive back, repulse

tollo, tollere, subtuli, sublatus - raise; destroy

vereor, vereri, veritus sum - to be afraid, fear

ulciscor, ulcisci, ultus sum - to avenge, take vengeance

aditus, -us (m) approach, entrance

auctoritas, auctoritatis (f) influence, clout

centurio, centurionis (m) centurion

circuitus, -us (m) circumference, circuit

contumelia, -ae (f) insult, outrage; violence

fames, famis (f) hunger

fama, -ae (f) story, rumor; reputation

familiaris, -e- of the family; close friend

fides, fidei (f) faith, honor, trust

fletus, -us (m) weeping

hiems, hiemis (f) winter

hiberna, -orum (n. Pl.) winter-camp

inopia, -ae (f) poverty, want, need

ignis, -is (m) fire

meritum, -i (n) service, favour

mos, moris (m) custom, habit, manner

negotium, -ii (n) business, a task

opus, operis (n) work, toil; defenses

opera, -ae (f) effort, attention

praesidium, -ii (n) guard, protection

pietas, pietatis (f) devotion/loyalty to family, state/nations and gods

ratio, rationis (f) an accounting, reasoning

scala, -ae (f) ladder, stairs

sententia, -ae (f) opinion, purpose

sermo, sermonis (m) conversation, speech

studium, -ii (n) eagerness, zeal

stipendium, -i (n) pay; military service

voluntas, voluntatis (f) wish, will, choice

vulgus, -i (n) mass, mob

aeger, aegra, aegrum - sick, weak

alacer, alacris, alacere - eager, spirited

amplus, a, um - ample, full, spacious

confertus, a, um - crowded together

humilis, -e- on the ground; humble, low

incommodus, a, um - unfortunate, disastrous

incolumis, -e- uninjured, safe

indignus, a, um + ablative= unworthy, undeserving

idoneus, a, um - suitable, appropriate +dative case

levis, -e - light

par, paris - equal, similar

repentinus, a, um - sudden, unexpected

saucius, a, -um - wounded

adeo, (av.) to such an extent

apud + acc. = in the presence of, with, among

confestim (adv.) immediately

eiusmodi - of this kind, of such a kind, so

intra + acc. = within

inter + acc= between, among

procul (adv.) far off, at a distance

quotiens - as often as

quoniam - since

nondum (adv.) not yet

paene (adv.) almost

rursus (adv.) again, backward

sive…sive or seu…seu - whether, or

tametsi - even if, although

unde - whence, from where

vero - in truth, in fact

Phrases or Idioms:

Res est testimonio - “the matter is for (the purpose of) evidence”

de summis rebus - “concerning the most serious circumstances”

in ipso negotio:'in the midst of action'.

ad hunc modum - in this manner

in perpetuum - forever

se receperunt - they retreated

longe lateque - far and wide

eodem die - on the same day

subductis navibus - ship drawn up

magna manu - with a large group of men

summo loco - in the highest position

List for 3rd Vocabulary Quiz - "Them's Fighten' Words" or Words of a Martial Nature.

conicio, conicere, conieci, coniectus - to hurl, to throw

consuesco, consuescere, consuevi, consuetus - to be accustomed (to)+ infinitive

cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognotus - to learn, come to know (in the perfect = know).

contendo, contendere, contendi, contentus - to struggle, vie, fight

dedo, dedere, dedidi, deditus - to give up, surrender

desum, deesse, defui - to be lacking; to fail +dative case

expugno (1) to take by storm, capture

existimo (1) to judge, consider, think

efficio, efficere, effeci, effectus - to do, effect(often used impersonally + ut + subjunctive = “it happened that.....”

gero, gerere, gessi, gestum - to wage, conduct, accomplish; wear

incolo, incolere - to dwell

incito (1) to drive forward, incite

munio (4) to fortify

nasciscor, nascisci, nactus sum - to find, to obtain

probo (1) approve, commend

praecedo, praecedere, praecessi - to go before,excel

procedo, procedere, processi, processus - to advance, go forward

proficiscor, proficisci, profectus sum - to set out

subvenio, subvenire, subveni, subventum - to come to the aid of + dative

acies, aciei (f) battle line

agmen, agminis (n) marching line (novissimum agmen= rear of theline)

auxilium, -ii (n) help

castra, -arum (n) camp

cohors, cohortis (f) cohort

cornu, -us (n) wing (of an army); horn

copiae, -arum (f) troops

equites, equitum (m. pl.) cavalry

equitatus, -us (m) cavalry

eruptio, eruptionis (f) a breaking out

exercitus, -us (m) army

fossa, -ae (f) ditch

frumentum, -i (n) grain, (in plural = crops)

gladius, -ii (m) sword

impedimentum, -i (n) impediment, obstacle, (in plural = baggage train)

impetus, -us (m) attack

latus, lateris (n) side; flank

legatus, -i (m) envoy; lieutenant

legio, legionis (f) legion

manus, -us (f) hand; band or group of soldiers

miles, militis (m) soldier

munitio, munitionis (f) fortification

murus, -i (m) wall

obsidio, obsidionis (f) siege, blockade

pars, partis (f) part, side;direction

passus, -us (m) step, pace

pilum, i (n) javelin

praesidium, -ii (n) guard

proelium, -ii (n) battle

profectio, profectionis (f) departure, setting out

salus, salutis (f) safety, salvation

scutum, -i (n) shield

subsidium, -ii (n) help, reinforcement, support

telum, -i (n) weapon; spear

turris, turris, turrium (f) tower

usus, -us (m) use (of used as a dative of purpose by Caesar)

vigilia, -ae (f) watch (military)

vallum, -i (n) rampart; wall

virtus, virtutis (f) courage, valour

expeditus, a, um- lightly armed

fortis, forte (adj.) brave, strong

paratus, a, um - prepared

reliquus, a, um - remaining, the rest

tardus, a, um - slow

ne...quidem = not even (surrounds the word that it emphasizes)

qua (relative) where

fere (adv.) nearly, almost

plerumque (adv.) generally, usually; often

praeterea (adv.) besides, moreover

procul (adv.) at a distance, far away

prope (adv.) near

propterea quod - because, on account of the fact that

List for 2nd Vocabulary Quiz.

accido, accidere, accidi- to happen (often + ut + subjunctive) = it happened that ......

arbitror, arbitrari, arbitratus sum- to judge, to think

conficio, conficere, confeci, confectus- to complete, finish

consisto, consistere, constiti- to take up position; to place oneself; stop; stand firm

consto, constare, constiti, constatum- to stand together; to be established; often used impersonally - constat or constabat= it is agreed

constituo, constituere, constitui, constitutum- to set up, place, establish; to decide, to arrange

consuesco, consuescere, consuevi, consuetus- to be accustomed (to)+ infinitive

cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognotus - to learn, come to know (in the perfect = know).

desum, deesse, defui - to be lacking; to fail +dative case

efficio, efficere, effeci, effectus- to do, effect(often used impersonally + ut + subjunctive = “it happened that.....”

nasciscor, nascisci, nactus sum- to find, to obtain

persuadeo, persuadere, persuasi, persuasum +dative - to persuade

praesto, praestare, praestiti, praestatus - to perform

praesum, praeesse, praefui +dative - to be in command of

procedo, procedere, processi, processurus - to go forward, advance

pronuntio, prountiare, pronuniavi, pronuntiatus - to announce, make known

subsequor, subsequi, subsecutus sum - to follow closely

versor, versari, versatus sum - to be involved in, to be engaged in

animus, -i (m) mind, spirit; (in plural = courage)

consuetudo, consuetudinis (f) custum, habit

consilium, -ii (n) plan, counsel

copia, -ae (f) abundance; troops, forces; supplies

casus, -ūs (m) misfortune disater

casu (adv.) by change, accidentally

facultas, facultatis (f) opportunity, power, skill, ability

finis, -is (m or f) end, limit, boundary (in plural = borders, territory)

finitimi, -ōrum (m. pl.) neighboring tribe or people

imperium, -i (n) command, power

initium, -i (n) beginning; entrance

iter, itineris (n) journey, path, route, road (facere iter = to march)

navis, -is (f) ship (navium gen. pl.)

obses, obsidis (m/f) hostage

opera, -ae (f) effort, trouble

opus, operis (n) work; building; fortification

passus, -us (m) step, pace

salus, salutis (f) safety

tergum, -i (n) back

usus, ūs (m) use, exercise, practice, application

nonnullus, a, um - some, (lit. not none) -ius paradigm

relinquus, a, um - the remaining, the rest

totus, a, um (-ius paradigm) whole, entire

tutus, a, um - safe

uterque, utraque, utrumque (-ius paradigm utriusque in gen.) each (of two)

fere (adv.) nearly, almost

plerumque (adv.) generally, usually; often

praeterea (adv.) besides, moreover

procul (adv.) at a distance, far away

prope (adv.) near

propter (prep. +acc.) on account of, because of

quisque, quidque (indef. pronoun) each one, each person, each thing

ne...quidem = not even

quidem, indeed, certainly, at any rate

uti = ut (subordinating conj.)

List for 3rd Vocabulary Quiz - "Them's Fighten' Words" or Words of a Martial Nature.

conicio, conicere, conieci, coniectus - to hurl, to throw

consuesco, consuescere, consuevi, consuetus - to be accustomed (to)+ infinitive

cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognotus - to learn, come to know (in the perfect = know).

contendo, contendere, contendi, contentus - to struggle, vie, fight

dedo, dedere, dedidi, deditus - to give up, surrender

desum, deesse, defui - to be lacking; to fail +dative case

expugno (1) to take by storm, capture

existimo (1) to judge, consider, think

efficio, efficere, effeci, effectus - to do, effect(often used impersonally + ut + subjunctive = “it happened that.....”

gero, gerere, gessi, gestum - to wage, conduct, accomplish; wear

incolo, incolere - to dwell

incito (1) to drive forward, incite

munio (4) to fortify

nasciscor, nascisci, nactus sum - to find, to obtain

probo (1) approve, commend

praecedo, praecedere, praecessi - to go before,excel

procedo, procedere, processi, processus - to advance, go forward

proficiscor, proficisci, profectus sum - to set out

subvenio, subvenire, subveni, subventum - to come to the aid of + dative

acies, aciei (f) battle line

agmen, agminis (n) marching line (novissimum agmen= rear of theline)

auxilium, -ii (n) help

castra, -arum (n) camp

cohors, cohortis (f) cohort

cornu, -us (n) wing (of an army); horn

copiae, -arum (f) troops

equites, equitum (m. pl.) cavalry

equitatus, -us (m) cavalry

eruptio, eruptionis (f) a breaking out

exercitus, -us (m) army

fossa, -ae (f) ditch

frumentum, -i (n) grain, (in plural = crops)

gladius, -ii (m) sword

impedimentum, -i (n) impediment, obstacle, (in plural = baggage train)

impetus, -us (m) attack

latus, lateris (n) side; flank

legatus, -i (m) envoy; lieutenant

legio, legionis (f) legion

manus, -us (f) hand; band or group of soldiers

miles, militis (m) soldier

munitio, munitionis (f) fortification

murus, -i (m) wall

obsidio, obsidionis (f) siege, blockade

pars, partis (f) part, side;direction

passus, -us (m) step, pace

pilum, i (n) javelin

praesidium, -ii (n) guard

proelium, -ii (n) battle

profectio, profectionis (f) departure, setting out

salus, salutis (f) safety, salvation

scutum, -i (n) shield

subsidium, -ii (n) help, reinforcement, support

telum, -i (n) weapon; spear

turris, turris, turrium (f) tower

usus, -us (m) use (of used as a dative of purpose by Caesar)

vigilia, -ae (f) watch (military)

vallum, -i (n) rampart; wall

virtus, virtutis (f) courage, valour

expeditus, a, um- lightly armed

fortis, forte (adj.) brave, strong

paratus, a, um - prepared

reliquus, a, um - remaining, the rest

tardus, a, um - slow

ne...quidem = not even (surrounds the word that it emphasizes)

qua (relative) where

fere (adv.) nearly, almost

plerumque (adv.) generally, usually; often

praeterea (adv.) besides, moreover

procul (adv.) at a distance, far away

prope (adv.) near

propterea quod - because, on account of the fact that

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